| By Anthony Bebbington | Published in The Politics of Inclusive Development: Interrogating the Evidence, pp. 86-115. Edited by S. Hickey, K. Sen, B. Bukenya. Oxford: Oxford University Press. |

Abstract: This chapter addresses institutional and political relationships that govern the interactions between natural resource extraction, economy and society with a focus on the mining and hydrocarbon sectors. These relationships help define the implications of resource extraction for democracy and the qualities of growth. On that basis it explores the conditions under which these relationships are likely to be reproduced or changed, and the ways in which they might mediate the interactions between extraction and inclusion. The chapter uses a framework that draws from two perspectives: political settlements, contentious politics, and the politics of ideas; and another that engages with the specific relationships of scale, space, and time. The implication is that any effort to understand the governance of extraction and of its relationships to development must be spatially and historically explicit.