| By D. Humphreys Bebbington and A. Bebbington | Published in New Political Spaces in Latin American Natural Resource Governance. Edited by H. Haarstad. Oxford: Palgrave Macmillan. |

Abstract: Lima, 2011: A colleague begins a postgraduate seminar on extractive industries by presenting students, drawn from across Latin America, with a series of quotations on the relationships between extraction, development strategy, and society. The quotations are unlabeled, though the students are told that they come from Latin American presidents and vice presidents, representing political positions ranging from the self-consciously neoliberal to the ostensibly post-neoliberal. The task was to assign the quotations to these politically very different leaders. The success rate was not high. The point, of course, was to suggest that extractive economies can do strange things to politics, reining in the possibilities of innovation even under progressive government.