| By Anthony Bebbington | Published in World Development, vol. 24 (7): 1161-1178 |

Abstract: This paper analyzes several experiences from Bolivia and Ecuador of how campesino and indigenous federations engage in agricultural development and natural resource management activities. It is argued that the federations may have especially important roles to play in agricultural and livelihood intensification. Although not traditional roles for many federations, these activities have become increasingly important components of their wider development and sociopolitical strategies. Three different trajectories through which federations have arrived at work with technology are identified, and three natural resources related roles played by the federations are outlined: as deliverer of technology services; as rural social enterprise; and as natural resources rights group. The paper also suggests that experience shows that these organizations could play an integral role in interinstitutional approaches to agricultural development and rural intensification.