Ghimire B, Williams CA (in revision) “On detecting and quantifying the influence of equifinality on parameter estimation: New Bayesian methods and demonstration with fusion of eddy covariance data and an ecosystem model“.

Ghimire B, Williams CA, Collatz GJ, Vanderhoof M, Rogan J, Kulakowski D, Masek JG (in revision) “Large Carbon Release from Bark Beetle Outbreaks across Western United States Imposes Climate Feedback“.

van Dijk AIJM, Gash JH, van Gorsel E, and FLUXNET Synthesis Group members including: Williams CA (in review) “Rainfall interception and the coupled surface water and energy balance“.


Williams CA (2014) “ Heat and drought extremes likely to stress ecosystem productivity equally or more in a warmer, CO2 rich future“, Environmental Research Letters, 9, 101002, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/10/101002. (pdf copy)

Ghimire B, Williams CA, Masek J, Gao F, Wang Z, Schaaf C, He T (2014) “Global albedo change and radiative cooling from anthropogenic land-cover change, 1700 to 2005 based on MODIS, land-use harmonization and radiative kernels“, Geophysical Research Letters, in press.

Gao F, He T, Wang Z, Ghimire B, Shuai Y, Masek J, Schaaf C, Williams CA (2014) “Multi-scale Climatological Albedo Look-up Maps Derived from MODIS BRDF/Albedo Products“, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, in press.

Vanderhoof ME, Williams CA (2014, online) “Persistence of evapotranspiration impacts from mountain pine beetle outbreaks in lodgepole pine forests, south-central Rocky Mountains“, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 200: 78-91. (pdf copy).

Khomik M, Williams CA, Vanderhoof MK, MacLean R, Dillen SY (2014) “On the causes of rising gross ecosystem productivity in a regenerating clearcut environment: leaf area, species composition, or environmental conditions“, Tree Physiology, doi:10.1093/treephys/tpu-049 (pdf copy).

Vanderhoof ME, Williams CA, Shuai Y, Jarvis D, Kulakowski D, Masek J (2014) “Albedo-induced radiative forcing from mountain pine beetle outbreaks in forests, south-central Rocky Mountains: magnitude, persistence, and relation to outbreak severity“, Biogeosciences, 11, 563-575, doi:10.5194/bg-11-563-2014 (web copy).

Liu L, Jafarov EE, Schaefer KM, Jones BM, Zebker HA, Williams CA, Rogan J, Zhang T (2014) “InSAR detects increase in surface subsidence caused by an Arctic tundra fire“, Geophysical Research Letters, in press.

Williams CA, Collatz GJ, Masek J, Huang C, Goward S (2014) “Impacts of disturbance history on forest carbon stocks and fluxes: merging satellite disturbance mapping with forest inventory data in a carbon cycle model framework“, Remote Sensing of Environment, 151: 57-71. (web copy).


Chen B, Arain MA, Khomik M, Trofymow JA, Grant RF, Kurz WA, Yeluripati J, Wang Z (2013) “Evaluating the impacts of climate variability and disturbance regimes on the historic carbon budget of a forest landscape“, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 180, 15 October 2013, Pp. 265-280.

Vanderhoof ME, Williams C, Ghimire B, Rogan J (2013) “Impact of mountain pine beetle outbreaks on forest albedo and radiative forcing as dervied from MODIS, Rocky Mountains, USA“, Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 118: 1-11, doi:10.1002/jgrg.20120, (pdf copy).

Williams CA,Vanderhoof M, Khomik M, Ghimire B (2013) “Post-clearcut dynamics of carbon, water and energy exchanges in a mid-latitude temperate, deciduous broadleaf forest environment“, Global Change Biology, Online October 18, 2013, DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12388 (pdf copy).

Panday PK, Williams CA, Frey KE, Brown ME (2013) “Application and evaluation of a snowmelt runoff model in the Tamor River basin, eastern Himalaya using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) data assimilation approach“, Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10005 (pdf copy)

Valentini R, Arneth A, Bombelli A, Castaldi S, Cazzolla Gatti R, Chevallier F, Ciais P, Grieco E, Hartmann J, Henry M, Houghton RA, Jung M, Kutsch WL, Malhi Y, Mayorga E, Merbold L, Papale D, Peylin P, Raymond PA, Santini M, Sitch S, Vaglio Laurin G, van der Werf GR, Williams CA, Scholes RJ (2013) “The full greenhouse gases budget of Africa: synthesis, uncertainties and vulnerabilities“, Biogeosciences-Discussions, 10, 8343–8413, doi:10.5194/bgd-10-8343-2013 (web copy).

Marshall M, Tu K, Funk C, Michaelsen J, Williams P, Williams CA, Ardö J, Marie B, Cappelaere B, de Grandcourt A, Nickless, A, Nouvellon Y, Scholes R, Kutsch W (2013) “Improving operational land surface model canopy evapotranspiration in Africa using a direct remote sensing approach”, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 1079-1091, doi:10.5194/hess-17-1079-2013. (pdf copy)

Vanderhoof M, Williams CA, Pasay M, Ghimire B (2013) “Controls on the rate of CO2 emission from woody debris in clearcut and coniferous forest environments of central Massachusetts“, Biogeochemistry, 114:299-311, DOI: 10.1007/s10533-012-9810-4. (pdf copy)

Cuba N, Rogan J, Christman Z, Williams CA, Schneider L, Lawrence D (2013) “Modelling dry season deciduousness in Mexican Yucatan forest using MODIS EVI data (2000-2011), GIScience & Remote Sensing, DOI:10.1080/15481603.2013.778559. (pdf copy)


Ghimire B, Williams CA, Collatz GJ, Vanderhoof M (2012) “Fire-induced carbon emissions and regrowth uptake in western U.S. forests: Documenting variation across forest types, fire severity, and climate regions“, Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 117, G03036, doi:10.1029/2011JG001935. (pdf copy)

Schwalm CR, Williams CA, Schaefer K, Baldocchi D, Black TA, Goldstein AT, Law BE, Meyers T, Monson RK, Oechel WC, Paw-U KT, Scott RL (2012) “Reduction in Carbon Uptake during Turn of the Century Drought in Western North America“, Nature-Geoscience, doi:10.1038/NGEO1529, Published Online 29 July. (pdf copy)

Schaefer K, Schwalm C, Williams CA, et al. (2012) “A model-data comparison of Gross Primary Productivity: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis“, Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 117, G03010, 15 pp., doi:10.1029/2012JG001960. (pdf copy)

Williams CA, Reichstein M, Buchmann N, Baldocchi D, Beer C, Schwalm C, Wohlfahrt G, Hasler N, Bernhofer C, Foken T, Papale D, Schymanski S, Schaefer K (2012) “Climate and vegetation controls on the surface water balance: synthesis of evapotranspiration measured across a global network of flux towers”, Water Resources Research, 48, W06523 doi:10.1029/2011WR011586. (pdf copy)

Williams CA, Collatz GJ, Masek J (2012) “Carbon consequences of forest disturbance and recovery across the conterminous United States”, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, doi:10.1029/2010GB003947. (pdf copy)


Schwalm CR, Williams CA, Schaefer K (2011) “Carbon consequences of global hydrologic change, 1948-2009”, Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 116, G03042, doi:10.1029/2011JG001674.(pdf copy)

Schwalm CR, Williams CA, Schaefer K, Baker I, Collatz GJ, Roedenbeck C (2011) “Does terrestrial drought explain global CO2 flux anomalies induced by El Niño?”, Biogeosciences, 8, 4209-4238. (pdf copy)

Jung M, Reichstein M, Cescatti A, Richardson A, Margolis H, Arain A, Arneth A, Bonal D, Chen J, Gianelle D, Gobron N, Kiely G, Kutsch W, Lasslop G, Law B, Lindroth A, Merbold L, Montanani L, Moors E, Papale D, Sottocornola M, Vaccari F, Williams C (2011) “Global patterns of land biosphere – atmosphere fluxes derived from upscaling FLUXNET observations”, Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 116, G00J07, doi:10.1029/2010JG001566. (pdf copy)

Williams CA, Hanan NP (2011) “ENSO and IOD teleconnections for African ecosystems: Evidence of destructive interference between climate oscillations”, Biogeosciences, 8: 27-40, doi: 10.5194/bgd-7-6323-2010. (pdf copy)


Williams CA (2010) “Integration of remote sensing and modeling to understand carbon fluxes and climate interactions in Africa”, In: Ecosystem Function in Global Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales, Ed. M.J. Hill and N.P. Hanan, CRC Taylor and Francis.

Hanan NP, Boulain N, Williams CA, Scholes RJ, Archibald S (2010) “Functional convergence in ecosystem carbon exchange in adjacent savanna vegetation types of the Kruger National Park, South Africa”, In: Ecosystem Function in Global Savannas: Measurement and Modeling at Landscape to Global Scales, Ed. M.J. Hill and N.P. Hanan, CRC Taylor and Francis.

Jung M, Reichstein M, Ciais P, Seneviratne SI, Sheffield J, Bonan G, Cescatti A, Chen J, de Jeu R, Dolman H, Eugster W, Gerten D, Gianelle D, Gobron N, Goulden ML, Heinke J, Kimball J, Law BE, Montagnani L, Mu Q, Mueller B, Oleson K, Papale D, Richardson AD, Roupsard O, Running S, Tomelleri E, Viovy N, Weber U, Williams CA, Wood E, Zaehle S, Zhang K (2010) “A recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply”, Nature, 467: 951-954, doi:10.1038/nature09396.

Schwalm CR, Williams CA, Schaefer K, and 45 co-authors (2010) “A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis”, Journal of Geophysical Research – Biogeosciences, 115: G00H05, doi: 10.1029/2009JG001229. (pdf copy)

Yi C, Ricciuto D, and over 100 co-authors including Williams CA (2010) “Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange”, Environmental Research Letters, 5: 034007, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/5/3/034007.

Beer C, Reichstein M, Tomelleri E, Ciais P, Jung M, Carvalhais N, Rödenbeck C, Altaf Arain M, Baldocchi D, Bonan GB, Bondeau A, Cescatti A, Lasslop G, Lindroth A, Lomas M, Luyssaert S, Margolis H, Oleson KW, Roupsard O, Veenendaal E, Viovy N, Williams CA, Woodward I, Papale D (2010) “Terrestrial gross carbon dioxide uptake: Global distribution and co-variation with climate”, Science, 329 (5993): 834-838, doi: 10.1126/science.1184984.

Schwalm CR, Williams CA, Schaefer K, Arneth A, Bonal D, Buchmann N, Chen J, Law BE, Lindroth A, Luyssaert S, Reichstein M, Richardson AD (2010) “Assimilation exceeds respiration sensitivity to drought: A FLUXNET synthesis”, Global Change Biology, 16, 657-670, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01991.x. (pdf copy)


Williams CA, Hanan N, Scholes RJ, Kutsch W (2009) “Complexity in water and carbon dioxide fluxes following rain pulses in an African savanna”, Oecologia, 161(3): 469-480, doi: DOI 10.1007/s00442-009-1405-y. (pdf copy)

Beer C, Ciais P, Reichstein M, Baldocchi D, Law BE, Papale D, Soussana J-F, Ammann C, Buchmann N, Frank D, Gianelle D, Janssens IA, Knohl A, Koestern B, Moors E, Roupsard O, Verbeeck H, Vesala T, Williams CA, Wohlfahrt G (2009) “Temporal and among-site variability of inherent water-use efficiency at the ecosystem scale”, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB2018, doi:10.1029/2008GB003233. (pdf copy)

Archibald SA, Kirton A, van der Merwe MR, Scholes RJ, Williams CA, Hanan N (2009) “Drivers of interannual variability in Net Ecosystem Exchange in a semi-arid savanna ecosystem, South Africa”, Biogeosciences, 6, 251-266. (pdf copy)


Kutsch WL, Hanan NP, Scholes RJ, McHugh I, Khubeka W, Eckhardt H, Williams CA (2008) “Response of carbon fluxes to water relations in a savanna ecosystem in South Africa”, Biogeosciences, 5, 1797-1808. (pdf copy)

Williams CA, Hanan NP, Baker I, Collatz GJ, Berry JA, Denning AS (2008) “Interannual variability of photosynthesis across Africa and its attribution”, Journal of Geophysical Research 113, G04015, doi:10.1029/2008JG000718. (pdf copy)


Williams CA, Hanan NP, Neff JC, Scholes RJ, Berry JA, Denning AS, Baker DF (2007) “Africa and the global carbon cycle”, Carbon Balance and Management, 2:3, doi:10.1186/1750-0680-2-3. (pdf copy)

Williams CA, Scanlon TM, Albertson JD (2007) “Influence of surface heterogeneity on scalar dissimilarity in the roughness sublayer”, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 122(1):149-165,  doi:10.1007.s10546-006-9097-x. (pdf copy)


Teuling AJ, Seneviratne SI, Williams CA, Troch PA (2006) “Observed timescales of evapotranspiration response to soil moisture”, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L23403, doi:10.1029/2006GL028178. (pdf copy)

Williams CA, Albertson JD (2006) “Dynamical effects of the statistical structure of annual rainfall on dryland vegetation”, Global Change Biology, 12, 777–792, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01111.x. (pdf copy)

Emanuel RE, Albertson JD, Epstein HE, Williams CA (2006) “Carbon dioxide exchange and early old-field succession”, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, G01011, doi: 10.1029/2005JG000069. (pdf copy)

Albertson JD, Williams CA, Scanlon TM, and Montaldo N (2006) “Soil moisture controls on water and carbon fluxes in semi-arid regions”, In: Dryland Ecohydrology, eds. P. D’Odorico, A. Porporato, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 67-83.


Williams CA, Cooper DJ (2005) “Mechanisms of riparian cottonwood decline along regulated rivers”, Ecosystems, 8: 1-14, doi:10.1007/s10021-003-0072-9. (pdf copy)

Williams CA, Albertson JD (2005) “Contrasting short- and long-timescale effects of vegetation dynamics on water and carbon fluxes in water-limited ecosystems”, Water Resources Research 41, W06005, doi:10.1029/2004WR003750. (pdf copy)

2004 and earlier

Williams CA, Albertson JD (2004) “Soil moisture controls on canopy-scale water and carbon  fluxes in an African savanna”, Water Resources Research, 40, W09302, doi:10.1029/2004WR003208. (pdf copy)

Williams CA (2004) “Hydrologic controls on vegetation function and structure in water-limited systems”, Ph.D.Dissertation, Duke University, pp. 205.

Binkley, D., Ice GG, Kaye J, and Williams CA (2004) “Nitrogen and Phosphorous concentrations in forest streams of the United States”, Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 40(5):1277-1291. (pdf copy)

Scanlon, TM, Albertson JD, Caylor KK, and Williams CA (2002) “Determining land surface fractional cover from NDVI and rainfall time series for a savanna ecosystem”, Remote Sensing of Environment, 82(2-3): 376-388. (pdf copy)

Williams CA (2000) “Comparison of floodplain hydrology and cottonwood water relations between a regulated and an unregulated river in northwestern Colorado”, MS Thesis, Colorado State University.