Organic Farming Elsewhere

The last four blog posts have all been about organic farming in Cuba. However, organic farming is practiced all around the globe. This blog post will explain the places around the globe where organic farming is practiced and is just as popular as organic farming in Cuba.

In a 2012 status report, it states that Wisconsin has seen an increase in organic farming by 157 percent from 2002 to 2007. Globally, 87 million acres were farmed under organic management in 2008, representing almost 1.4 million producers in 154 countries. The 2008 USDA Organic Agriculture Census ranks Wisconsin second in total number of organic farms; The census reports 2,714 organic farms in California, which is the top- ranked state, and 1,222 organic farms in Wisconsin. Wisconsin is ranked in the top five for many categories like organic hogs and pigs, organic vegetables and melons, Wisconsin also leads the nation in the number of organic dairy and beef farms with a total of 479 dairy farms and and 109 beef farms. Wisconsin ranks first in the number of farms raising several organic field crops including barley for grain or seed; corn for grain or seed; corn for silage or greenchop; hay; haylage, other silage and greenchop; oats for grain or seed; rye for grain or seed; and winter wheat for grain or seed.

The next area that has an expansion of organic farming is Australia. The earliest history of organic farming in Australia was 1944, says John Paull, who wrote the Journal of Organic Systems. Australia is a leading supplier of sustainable and organic fertilizers, and soil and crop health products. In 1999, there was an increase of popularity of Organic farming and three organic organizations were created: BFA, BDAA and NASAA. BDAA stated that it “trains farmers in Bio-dynamic practices”, and that there are three grades of certification; Grades A and B are produced without “artificial fertilizers or synthetic chemicals”, while for Grade C produce, “a minimum of chemical sprays have been applied.” NASAA stated that it promotes “sustainable agriculture”, and that its “systems exclude or severely restrict the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides.” BFA uses the term “regenerative farming” (and neither of “sustainable” nor “organic”), however it states unequivocally that: “Artificial fertilizers, chemically synthesized weedicides, pesticides, fungicides, fumigants and growth promotants are not tolerated” (AQIS 1989).

Along with Australia, India also has a prominent organic farming system in place. The Organic Farming Association of India (OFAI) was set up by the seniormost members of India’s organic farming community in the year 2002. The association was primarily set up to promote organic farming, lobby with government agencies and departments to pay more attention to sustainable agriculture, and assist farmers using chemicals and pesticides to convert successfully to organic farming methods. Similar to Cuba it India had to make the switch to organic farming: During the 1950s and 1960s, the ever-increasing population of India, along with several natural calamities, led to a severe food scarcity in the country. As a result, the government was forced to import food grains from foreign countries. To increase food security, the government had to drastically increase food production in India. The Green Revolution (under the leadership of M. S. Swaminathan) became the government’s most important program in the 1960s. Several hectares of land were brought under cultivation. Hybrid seeds were introduced. Natural and organic fertilizers were replaced by chemical fertilizers and locally made pesticides were replaced by chemical pesticides. Large chemical factories such as the Rashtriya Chemical Fertilizers were established. (Organic Farming in India | Fun Facts).

It is interesting to see how many of these counties/places have practiced organic farming for many years and like Cuba needed to make the switch in order to keep their livelihood.

Works Cited

AQIS, 1989, The Case for a National Approach to Certification of Organically Grown Products, Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service, Department of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra, ACT, November.

Deller, S. and D. Williams. “Organic Agriculture in Wisconsin by the Numbers.” 2012 Status Report: 2009. http://www.cias.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/organic-numbers.pdf.

“Organisation – Organic Farming Association of India.” Organic Farming Association of India: 2016. http://ofai.org/organisation/.

“Organic Farming in India | Fun Facts.” 2016. https://www.organicfacts.net/organic-products/organic-cultivation/organic-farming-in-india.html.

Paull, John. “Journal of Organic Systems.” Vol. 3 No. 2: 2008. http://orgprints.org/15089/1/15089new.pdf