Something Called Colorism

colorism

My previous posts addressed the issues of post-colonization and the lack of development in Africa. The posts were a reflection about who was behind the lack of development and why. For my final post, I will be addressing the lasting after affects of post-colonialism that has also stunted development in Africa, but has nothing to do with money or greed. It has everything to do with lasting psychological and sociological affects on the indigenous people. It’s something called colorism.

According to Baruti (2000), colorism is a global prejudice that people of African ancestry have toward each other and seemingly use against or to the advantage of themselves and others with relatively similar complexion. Herring (2004) also defines colorism as “discriminatory treatment of individuals falling within the same ‘racial’ group on the basis of skin color” (p. 21).

Colorism has caused a social division among tribes in Africa. Due to colonization there is this perception that lighter skinned Africans are  Black seen as superior to their darker skinned brothers and sisters. For example the Rwandan genocide of 1994. The Europeans who colonized Rwanda turned indigenous Hutus against immigrant Tutsis. The Tutsis had more westernized features thus they were granted higher positions in society. The darker hutus were taking revenge on the Tutsis who had been favored and been in control for the longest time during colonial rule simply because they were lighter and more Caucasian looking. This genocide was caused by colorism used to maintain social order thanks to European imperialist.

European imperialists are to blame for bringing the “lighter skin is righter” mentality to indigenes of colonized lands in Africa. Pre-colonial colorism indoctrinated non-European populations with harmful racial ideologies. So, it wasn’t enough for the Western world to invaded, pressure, conquest, and colonize due to European nations scramble for African. It wasn’t enough for these once colonies to face poverty and be forced to take huge loans from theses wealthy western countries to sustain their countries leaving them with foreign debt. It wasn’t enough for the indigenous people to unwillingly give up their land to foreigners. It wasn’t enough. So, the Europeans instilled modern Western racism; light skin became a symbol of wealth and class.

Acknowledging the implications of pre-colonial colorism is the next step to ending this ideology. Some do not recognize that this ideology is wealth-based and encourages color prejudices. This ideology fail to see the role of social conditioning.

Works Cited

“Global Colorism: An Ethical Issue and Challenge in Bioethics.” Voices in Bioethics. N.p., 09 Sept. 2014. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.

Compass, Sociology. Sociology Compass 1/1 (2007): 237–254, 10.1111/j.1751-9020.2007.00006.x The Persistent Problem of Colorism: Skin Tone, Status, and Inequality (n.d.): n. pag. Web.

“Real Differences: History, Inequality and Oppression.” The Origins of Conflict in Rwanda. N.p., n.d. W

Culture and Globalization

When globalization is discussed, it is often economically based and the people that are involved in this process are invisible. It is clear that globalization has a great impact on the economy. The people that are involved also suffer great harm from the process. Globalization is great because there is a flow of ideas and information. Additionally, communication among people beyond international borders  is facilitated. However, there is a loss of identity and originality is African nations. Culture is very important to African nations and there has been a history of the importance of these traditions and cultures.

Culture:

The culture of Africa is vast as the continent is. Cultures are usually expressed in arts, crafts, music and much more. Just as Africa is vast in different peoples and culture, so are individual countries. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, there are many ethnic groups that have different cultures and traditions. However, the most common traditions are in greeting customs. A proper handshake is usually done by the right hand or 3 kisses on the cheek. Men share greetings by butting heads from right to left. The family is also very important in African Communities. Men hold the position to make important decisions. However, traditions are being demanded to the modern trend of society as globalization occurs. People even state that change customary traditions allow for the country to become more developed and globalized. “ If they remain stagnant, they actually hinder society’s development” (Kwame, 6). I do not agree with this statement because I don’t think that African nations should have to compromise their individuality in order to be advanced with the society. There are important things that African cultures can contribute to the global society that should not be undermined. “tapping on traditional medicine and knowledge systems to fight diseases like HIV/AIDS” (Kwame, 7). I think that having a one sided story of the West being the best solution is dangerous because we do not get to explore other traditions. There are inhumane cultural traditions such as gender mutilation or trokosi in Ghana. Cultures embedded in African nations are so unique and losing that uniqueness should not be traded for any sum of money. There is always this “white savior” complex that is perpetuated by Western countries. Believing that their ideas are “one size fits all” when it truly is not.  It is important for African nations to not lose their uniqueness and individuality in its rich culture.

Language:

An important component of African culture is its language. Language is important because it has been the way many people have been able to communicate. With the emergence of globalization, and the new flow of ideas and communications, African languages are lost in the mix. Additionally, as a result of colonialism, eurocentric languages such as English and French, Portuguese, were embedded in African societies. English in Africa has been equated to intelligence. A person who is fluent in English is more likely to hold a job than someone that doesn’t. These languages were made so that globalization would occur more easily. The loss of language can signify a loss of culture as language is a large component of culture.  The effect that development and globalization have on African nations is the denial of culture and heritage and acceptance of western values. When I was in the Congo, I saw both sides of this effect of globalization in the culture. When I was driving  down a tourist town in the neighborhood of Gombe, I stumbled upon a stop sign that was in English rather than French.  As a country that it national language is French, it was interesting and almost unsettling that the stop sign said “Stop” rather than “Arrete.” But then I had to remind myself that it was a tourist area. However, there was a different side of globalization and language that I noticed in my summer vacation in Congo. Chinese investors have been in the country and have attempted to learn the national language. Most of them communicated with their clients in poor French mixed with Lingala. It was interesting to view the role that globalization had on language. There was the side where English was romanticized while outsiders were attempting to learn the local and national languages.

Music:

Hip Hop and music has now flown into the African communities through the African diaspora of other African American artists. In Africa hip-hop has been awarded its popularity not due to only commercialization, but also due to its ability to express the realities of life in varying situations around the world” (Ntarangwi, 2010). The commercialization of globalization has contributed to the economy. Additionally, the stories told in hip-hop music perpetuates a way for the disadvantaged people as their voice. Hip Hop is often stated to emerge out of the Civil Rights movement ((Binfield, 2009, p. 175; Neal, 2008, p. 117).  The same way the marginalized people of America had a voice and knew how to use it properly and with style” Africans have used music as their voice. In Congo, the youth has taken it upon themselves to engage in pro-democracy through music. Although there has been a backlash from the government, music gave the youth of Eastern Congo a voice. “Yole! Africa” is a youth cultural center that attempts to create democracy in the Democratic Republic of Congo. How ironic is it that most countries with the word“ democratic” aren’t democracies.

 Thinking Face on Apple iOS 9.3

Through their songs, hip-hop artists at Yole call out the government’s corruption and ineptitude” (Lamb, 2015: 1). In a country where there is not free speech, music is their voice Through this, these youth also demand fair and free democratic elections in November 2016. It is interesting to see the effect that globalization had on influencing people through music. Youth in America uses Hip Hop as their voice to speak on topics such as police brutality while in the Congo, it is used to indicate the country’s corruption. Although through music, some African artist have lost authenticity, they have also found a way to voice their political opinions. Here is the video of the Congolese musicians. 

Works Cited

Binfield, Marnie-Ruth. “Bigger than Hip-hop : Music and Politics in the Hip-hop Generation.” Bigger than Hip-hop : Music and Politics in the Hip-hop Generation. N.p., 2009. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
Http://www.youtube.com/channel/UCufvkji7Wvo_4CHE5v47Dfg. “Uhaki “Justice” EP 2.” YouTube. YouTube, 13 Sept. 2013. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
Kwame, Yeboah. “Globalization and Culture.” Winners and Losers in Globalization (n.d.): 166-76. University of Southern Denmark. University of Southern Denmark. Web. 15 Apr. 2016.
Lamb, Kate. “In Congo, Hip-hop Gives Youth a Political Voice.” Congo Hip-Hop Politics. America Al Jazeera, 11 Oct. 2015. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
Neal, Mark Anthony. “Sold out on Soul: The Corporate Annexation of Black Popular Music.” Academia.edu. N.p., 24 July 2008. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.
Ntarangwi, Mwenda. “University of Illinois Press.” UI Press. N.p., 2010. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.

The Rise of an Alternative to Free Trade

We’ve spent the last few weeks talking about the impact of globalization on developing countries, but this final blog is going to examine an alternative to free trade. Many people have argued that free trade has allowed producers in developing countries, especially in the market for agriculture, to suffer from insufficient wages and safety hazards. The theory of Fair Trade attempts to solve these labor issues by encouraging local production of goods through government assistance.

The main mechanisms for Fair Trade, as explained in the Journal of Economic Perspectives:

  • A price floor is set so that there is a minimum price that a Fair Trade buyer can buy from a Fair Trade producer. Prices can be negotiated higher when considering the quality and other aspects of the goods. This price floor also acts a cushion for when economic recession occurs and there may be cause for worry about being able to sell goods. Only in very recent years has the market price actually exceeded the fair trade price for coffee.
  • There is a Fair Trade premium that is paid from the buyer to the cooperative in addition to the price of the good being sold. The premium is supposed to be used by cooperatives in a democratic style to determine how to enhance production or community infrastructure.
  • Fair Trade buyers gain stable access to credit by agreeing to a long-term contract of at least one year and must “provide some advance crop financing to producer groups (up to 60 percent if requested”.
  • “Free Trade workers must have the freedom of association, safe working conditions, and wages at least equal to the legal minimum. Some forms of child labor are prohibited.”
  • Farmers are encouraged to organize democratic associations or cooperatives that can facilitate sales and manage the premium received from sold products.
  • Fair Trade production prohibits harmful chemicals from being used in food production to maintain a healthier environment. Producers are required to provide basic environmental reports that describe their impacts on the environment. Genetically modified crops are not allowed.
  • For a product to be sold under the mark of Fair Trade, both the buyer and seller must be Fair Trade certified. Standards vary on the particular crop being produced and are analyzed by different Fair Trade leaders such as Fairtrade International and FLO-CERT. Organizations obtain a Fair Trade certification by successfully applying to FLO-CERT and passing an initial inspection. Certifications can only be maintained by renewing with FLO-CERT and allowing for another inspection of the Fair Trade organization. (Dragusanu et al., 219-221)

The Institute for the Study of Labor, a non-profit project that allows scholars to engage in research about labor economics, conducted a study on the economic impact of Fair Trade. The findings, although still in its earliest stages, suggest that there is a positive impact on the prices and income of producers. In contract, the Fair Trade premiums were only earned on a fraction of the producers’ output due to the limited world demand of Fair Trade buyers, and thus the average amount of premium per producer is fairly small. Unfortunately, many other attempted empirical findings from the study were said to come inconclusive, which has become standard due to the inconsistency of studies trying to quantify the negative and positive effects internally and externally of Fair Trade policies and the growth of cooperatives (Dammert and Mohan, 24-25).

Fair Trade has been on the rise over the past couple of decades. In 2006, consumers spent $2.2 billion on Fair Trade certified products, which was a 42% increase over the previous year, ultimately benefitting over seven million producers in developing countries. 3.3% of all coffee sold was Fair Trade certified in 2006 which was eight times the amount sold in 2001 (Downie). Mexico examined its own use of Fair Trade policies and determined the main obstacles to the economic reform are its lack of power in the current world market, its lack of participation from small farmers, unawareness by consumers, and a necessity for more government aid. Regardless, Mexican farmers have expressed optimism in regards to the implementation of Fair Trade throughout the country, which has already developed largely in its market for coffee (Godoy).

Fair Trade is definitely an innovative way to challenge some of the labor issues that plague the current neoliberal practices in agricultural markets. The word of certified Fair Trade companies and foods has spread all over the world, and it has become part of a growing discussion in development and labor economics. If there were enough room in this blog post, I would’ve described a real life example of how Fair Trade has been implemented in the coffee industry for decades and how it compared to similar markets that participated in Free Trade. Thank you for taking a look at the impact of globalization on developing economics with me over the last few weeks.

Sources:
Dammert, Ana C., and Sarah Mohan. “A Survey Of The Economics Of Fair Trade.” Journal of Economic Surveys 29.5 (2014): 855-68. Web.

Downie, Andrew. “Fair Trade in Bloom.” NY Times. 2 Oct. 2007. Web.

Dragusanu, Raluca, Daniele Giovannucci, and Nathan Nunn. “The Economics of Fair Trade.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 28.3 (2014): 217-36. Web.

Godoy, Emilio. “Fair Trade Will Become Major Trend, Say Mexico Growers.” Banderas News. Inter Press Service, 12 Oct. 2009. Web.

Land Grabbing in Africa: The New Colonialism

african-farm

In my last post about post-colonization in African I discussed dependency theory and how it was a way for former colonizers to continue to exploit their former colonial countries with economic dependence. Essentially, trapping poor countries by large debts which prevent them from developing. To understand how Africa was trying to unscramble itself from foreign debt we have to look at land grabbing. “Land grabbing is the buying or leasing of large pieces of land in developing countries, by domestic and transnational companies, governments, and individuals” -(Stopafricanlandgrab).

I see land grabbing as a step towards re-colonization in Africa. Like the 19th century colonization, the new wave of land grabbing is well-intentioned. It is also well-planned, in the same way the 19th century colonization was by European powers of the time. But, this time around the African Union is complicit in this new plan. Introducing the “New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition in Africa” and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA).The  African Centre for Bio-Safety has labelled the plans as a “new wave of colonialism” (Mwesigire, 2014). The plans includes direct foreign investment in agriculture, allows the use of genetically modified seeds, and allows land ownership laws to favor these foreign companies. This takes away major opportunities from small-scale farmers. The foreign companies who will grow food for their own consumption are disempowering local farmers. How? They are essentially controlling their lives by turning them into consumers of products they cannot produce. Also, these genetically modified seeds the foreign companies are using are destroying the continents sustainability.

In Lorenzo Cotula’s book The Great African Land Grab? (2013). Provided evidence about the current situation by focusing on a handful of countries where land inventories have been conducted: Sudan, Nigeria, Mozambique, Liberia, and Ethiopia. The evidence Cotula provides about these five countries show that 10 million hectares of land was taken from the citizens and given to investors between 2004 to 2009. Also, a study reviewed in Cotula’s book showed that about half of all the land acquired in Africa between 2005 and 2011 was by Western companies; with European companies leading the way. This is a situation that resembles the colonial era land grabs.

In Ethiopia it was reported that the government has forced tens of thousands of people off their land, and given it to ‘investors’ in 2012. That land was bought Saudi Arabian and Chinese investors with the intention to grow rice and export that rice to their countries. Also, in Liberia, around 169,000 hectares had allegedly been given to the Equatorial Palm Oil (EPO) (a British palm oil company) by the government, without consulting over 7,000 people of the Jogbahn clan who have lived on the land for several generations.

As a result of the growing situation, the first Africa Conference on Land Grab is being organized at the Pan African Parliament. The goal of this conference is to halt the recolonization of the continent.

Works Cited:

“African Land Grabs; We Cannot Expect Companies and Financiers to Regulate Themselves.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 13 Mar. 2015. Web

“The Land Grabs in Africa You Don’t Hear about.” Africa Is a Country. 13 Nov. 2015.

“Land Grabbing in Africa, the New Colonialism.” This Is Africa. Web

Cotula, Lorenzo. The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System. Print.

“Stop Africa Land Grab – The Global Movement to Rollback Africa Land Grab.” Stop Africa Land Grab – The Global Movement to Rollback Africa Land Grab. Web.

Consumers vs. the Consumed: The Beginnings

Today Americans consume food like there is no tomorrow.  We eat and eat and eat without a thought to where our food comes from and how it ended up on our plates.  While most of the food Americans eat travels long distances before it reaches the mouths of consumers “as much as 90 percent of Americans could eat food grown within 100 miles of their home” (Ferdman 1).  This privilege is the result of the United States being the global developed super power that it is.  While many Americans don’t think about where their food comes from, many people living in the Global South have watched their food disappear.

Diving deep into the tangled and confusing web of the agricultural world is no fun matter and may make you think twice the next time you sit down to eat a meal.  However, developing an understanding of how agriculture has changed to benefit consumers in developing worlds is a must for anyone who advocates for human rights.  For this reason, my blogs will explore agriculture from different lenses in order to highlight the exploitation of farmers and peoples in the Global South, both in the past and the present.

The concept of agriculture has existed for thousands of years.  Different cultures and peoples developed their own way of growing and producing food in order to survive.  Essential to agriculture is land, which is “fundamental to the lives of poor rural people since it is a source of food, shelter, income, and social equity” (Behnassi and Yaya 4).  Most importantly, agriculture was often the focal point of communities; it was the starting point that people would build upon.  However, the age of imperialism sparked a change in agriculture that forever altered the way people grew crops around the world.  Imperialism laid the foundation for the development project and globalization, the results of which can still be seen today.

Global and local changes in agriculture have drastically increased the global production of crops, but mostly at the cost of those living in the Global South.  In India, nutritional inequalities appear to be widening for vulnerable demographic groups, furthering gender and income disparities in the region (Pritchard and Rommohan 1).  The emergence of monoculture, genetically modified organisms, pesticides, and new legal systems are a few of the key issues that have negatively impacted millions of farmers in India and around the world.  Debriefing these key issues will allow me to shed light on the exploitative methods of agribusinesses, governments, and transnational corporations.

While it is important to be aware of the actors involved in exploitation I will also emphasize the views of the exploited.  The rationalization of agricultural development has changed throughout history, but the disregard of locals’ opinions and ways of life has always been a constant in the discussion.  A 2008 Human Development Report found that even though export-oriented agriculture can benefit subsistence-oriented farmers, greater involvement in the international economy can hurt the same farmers who don’t have the necessary tools to succeed (O’Brien and Leichenko 11).  However, this significant fact is often ignored in the developing world.  For this reason, I hope to incorporate the opinions and voices of those less heard; the voices that really matter.  As one of the many privileged Americans, I cannot experience the exploitation I can only share others accounts of it.

In order to amplify these voices, I will use local papers based in the Global South.  The Hindustan Times, based out of New Delhi, and Brazill, based out of Brazil, will provide current insight on how agriculturally dependent societies have faired during the global changes to the agricultural system.  Rather than projecting Western opinion onto a foreign matter, the locality of these papers will present stories of exploitation from the victims rather than the privileged.

The scholarly book, Sustainable Agricultural Development, edited by Mohamed Behnassi, Joyce D’Silva, Shabbir A. Shahid, will provide me with academic views of how agriculture has developed and changed throughout the course of history.  The book is composed of many scholarly articles that I can use to explain different aspects of agricultural imperialism and development and how each relate to the exploitation of local people.

As mass consumers Americans hold sway in the powerful agricultural system, but in order to release the consumed from their shackles Americans need to open their eyes and educate themselves.  Including research from major western papers such as The Washington Post will give me an understanding of what current attitudes and perceptions Americans hold on the matter of agricultural development in the Global South.

Even though I am not personally effected by the exploitative agricultural system, I am most certainly part of the problem.  However, I am only one of millions living in developed nations across the globe.  Even though this blog will only reach the eyes of a few I hope that my research and writing throughout the next few weeks will open my eyes to what I do not already know.

 

Citations

Behnassi, Mohamed, and Sanni Yaya. “Land resource governance from a sustainability and rural development perspective.” Sustainable Agricultural Development. Springer Netherlands, 2011. 3-23.

Ferdman, Roberto A. “As Much as 90 Percent of Americans Could Eat Food Grown within 100 Miles of Their Home.” The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 5 June 2015. Web.

O’Brien, Karen, and Robin Leichenko. “Human security, vulnerability and sustainable adaptation.” Human Development Report 2008 (2007): 1-2.

Pritchard, Bill, and Anu Rammohan. “How India’s Food Security Question Can Be Answered.” Hindustantimes. Hindustan Times, 15 Oct. 2013. Web.

South Korea: An Economic Development Success Story?

As a development scholar, my primary interest resides within the influence of international trade on developing economies from a financial and humanitarian standpoint. The following blog posts will attempt to analyze examples of this dynamic by taking a closer look at case studies of developing economies that rely heavily upon exports, imports, or both. First, we will examine a success story of the rapidly developing country of South Korea throughout the past several decades and how it was able to successfully utilize its export-centered economy in a global setting.

Originally South Korea did not have the capability to compete in a global economy until the 1960s when it transitioned from a market focused on domestic products to an export-reliant economy. Prior to this change, the Korean economic system was heavily characterized by its agriculture and mining industries, while manufacturing only consisted of primary products that amounted to 3% of the country’s GNP. However, by expanding its manufacturing sector to simple products like textiles, and eventually sophisticated goods like automobiles and computers, total exports represented over 40 percent of Korean GNP. A result of this was that “the compound annual growth of per capita income was well in excess of 7 percent, making it one of the fastest growing economies in the world during this period” (Westphal 43).Screen Shot 2016-03-17 at 9.07.37 PM

South Korea has earned its rank as the eleventh largest global trading nation, exploding in trade value from $134.9 billion in 1990 to beyond $857.3 billion in 2008. Trading partners of the country originally included Japan, Europe, and the United States, but eventually a large percentage of total Korean exports ended up in China. By 2008, Korea had trade agreements with over 220 countries. The sophistication of the manufactured exports of Korea has increased over time, resulting in a current primary export market of chemicals, automobiles, computers, and other forms of high-level technology (Bark 24-36).

With the rise of corporate manufacturing in South Korea, many family-controlled conglomerates have risen with the aid of government policies that allowed them to benefit from tax advantages, exceptional loans, anti-labor policies, and various government contributions. A prime example of this consists of the dominant presence of Samsung in Korean economic activity and daily life. Aside from the penetration of Samsung in Korean education, electronics, amusement parks, life insurance, medicine, and housing, the company accounts for twenty percent of Korean exports and roughly seventeen percent of the annual GNP (Estrin).

When examining the success of Samsung in Korea, it is also important to assess the level of corruption that may be occurring within the realms of labor and management. In 2013, it was found that the Samsung Electronics factories had been contributing to various diseases of former employees. The corporation provided compensation to the workers who protested about this very issue, but Samsung refused to acknowledge any blame (Estrin).

Samsung demonstrates the power that multinational corporations have on an export-based economy like South Korea. “The former chairman of Samsung, Lee Kun-hee, was convicted of tax evasion and breach of trust in 2009, but he received a presidential pardon and returned to the chairmanship” (Estrin). The essentiality of Samsung to Korean economics can actually be deemed as frightening. It can be difficult for one to say that it is moral that the needs of the corporation outweigh the governmental law considering how fundamental Samsung is to Korean wealth.

Another problem that has emerged through the rapid development of South Korea is the massively increasing problem of income inequality. According to the IMF, forty-five percent of total income was being shared by the top ten percent of Korean earners. This percentage was the highest among its Asian-Pacific counterparts, with Singapore coming close at forty-two percent and Japan at forty-one percent (The Korea Economic Daily). This shouldn’t come as too much of a surprise considering most of the labor in South Korea is being focused in manufacturing while the top earners reside in the conglomerates that have been aided by government policies for decades.

This leaves the question then whether South Korea can be presented a successful model for export-driven developing economies. The empirical data demonstrates immense prosperity over the last three decades, especially when looking at the country’s change in GNP and global trade relations. However, when looking from a humanitarian lens, can we look past the increasing income gap, poor labor conditions, and the crippling power of large multinational corporations? It is important to assess all sides of the situation and weigh the pros and cons to international trade and its impact on developing economies. The blogs that follow will hopefully allow readers to examine the many outcomes, both expected and unexpected, of utilizing international trade as a method of participating in modern development.

Sources Cited:
Bark, Taeho. Ed. Byongwon Bahk and Gi-Wook Shin. Shorenstein APARC Working Papers. Stanford University, Feb. 2012. Web.

Estrin, James. “Samsung and the South Korean Success Story.” Web log post. NY Times Lens Blogs. NY Times, 13 Nov. 2015. Web.

“Korea’s Income Inequality Largest among Asian Nations…IMF Report.” The Korea Economic Daily. 16 Mar. 2016. Web.

Westphal, Larry E. “Industrial Policy in an Export-Propelled Economy: Lessons from South Korea’s Experience.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 4.3 (1990): 41-59. JSTOR. Web.

 

Globalization in Africa Introduction Post

african-exploitation

I am interested in globalization in Africa because I was born and raised in an African Country, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Growing up, I did not notice most things that I would notice now after years of school and experience. Last summer, I recently went to visit the Congo after being away for 8 years and I noticed many changes, some positive, some negative. Although I have seen how globalization has impacted my home country, I would like to widen and better understand the impact of globalization on the whole continent. I would like to research how globalization has affected different countries and the factors that led to it; economic, political leadership, etc.

In one of the scholarly article I have chosen to utilize for my blog post, the author states that “Globalization has turned the world into the big village” (Ibrahim, 2009:86). I thought that this is an accurate definition of globalization that depicts the realities of globalization. Usually, when globalization is defined, it is often described as the integration of the world politically, economically and socially. The definition by the author of the article I chose provides a visualizing image of globalization. In a village, there is often social hierarchy. There are the village king or chief, his entourage then the regular habitants of the village. Similarly, in globalization, there is social hierarchy, there are countries that benefit and those that do not benefit from globalization. This inequality is what I attempt to explore in my blog posts. 

The continent of Africa has undergone many different changes that could contribute to its decision to globalize in the last century. Many African Nations were enslaved and were able to gain independence in the late 1950s to early 1960s. In addition to that, these newly industrialized countries suffer from weak leadership. The leaders of many African nations are corrupt and want to benefit from the natural resources these nations possess. The decision of African nations to globalize has impacted Africa culturally and economically and politically. The rise of democracies in Africa could be credited to the Globalization Project (Shaka, 2013). With globalization, there is also the emergence of the struggle for survival. This disrupts the social, traditional and cultural dynamics of communities. Which is interesting because globalization is meant to increase economic growth, of course this is not applicable to everyone.  As I explore this theme, I would like to learn more about the inequality that is created by globalization. It is unfair that some members benefit while others don’t because of development.

Using the Google Scholar, I found an article from the (International Journal of Humanities and Social Science) titled The Impact of Globalization on Africa. I then proceeded to the United Nations University website, where I found a Policy Brief titled Linking Globalization to Poverty.I also researched a local newspaper from the region of my choice. I found a South-African newspaper called the Financial Mail. In this newspaper, I found an article on globalization titled Boardroom Tails: We really must grow up. Lastly, I found a Western newspaper article from the Guardian titled I was wrong. Free market trade policies hurt the poor. In addition to that, I also found an interview video about the impact of globalization on Africa by Kingsley Moghalu Africa has become a playground for globalization.

Drawing from these different research sources, I hope to gain a better understanding of the impact of globalization on the region of Africa. These sources will also guide my readers understand the individual, state, and international level of analysis of the issue.

Discussion Question:

What is your opinion on globalization?

Watch Who wins from globalization? it might help form an opinion on this vast topic.

Works Cited

Anderson, Mark, and Claudine Spera. “Kingsley Moghalu: ‘Africa Has Become a Playground for Globalisation’ – Video.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 4 Aug. 2014. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.
Byers, Stephen. “Stephen Byers: I Was Wrong. Free Market Trade Policies Hurt the Poor.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 19 May 2003. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.
Crotty, Ann. “Boardroom Tails: We Really Must Grow up.” Financial Mail. Financial Mail, 10 Mar. 2016. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.
Ibrahim, Alhaji A. “Neoliberalism, and Globalization in Africa.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (2008): n. pag. Center for Promoting Ideas. Center for Promoting Ideas, 15 Aug. 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.
Muyale-Manenji, Fridah. “The Effects of Globalization on Culture in Africa in the Eyes of an African Woman – World Council of Churches.” The Effects of Globalization on Culture in Africa in the Eyes of an African Woman – World Council of Churches. World Council of Churches, 01 Jan. 1998. Web. 16 Mar. 2016.
Nissanke, Machiko, and Erik Thorbecke. Linking Globalization to Poverty.
Helsinki: United Nations U (UNU). World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER), 2007. United Nations University. UNU-Wider, 2007. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.