The Politics of Underwear: Access and Attitudes on Sexuality in Sri Lanka

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          Last week, I introduced the topic of reproductive justice in a globalizing world, stressing time and time again the importance of looking at the movement as intersectional with race and nationality. This week, I will be incorporating race by specifically discussing the cultural tensions between white, American women and Sinhalese women in Sri Lanka.

Additionally, last week’s post loosely revolved around themes of sterilization and long-term birth control. However, it is important to keep in mind that the control of pregnancy and birth are not the only facets of the movement. Instead of merely focusing on birth control, conversations about the reproductive justice movement in Sri Lanka will focus on attitudes about sexuality as a whole.

pink-underwear

             In a chapter titled The Politics of Underwear in Caitrin Lynch’s Juki Girls, we learn about how globalization and the implementation of export-processing zones comes into conflict with Sri Lankan attitudes on sexuality. The chapter is central to ahinsaka, or “good girls” in Sri Lanka (Lynch 93) — an identifier that is challenged by juki girls, or female workers in EPZs, especially when manufacturing underwear. Lynch claims that in Sri Lanka, the colloquial use of the word underwear is loosely translated to “unmentionables” (Lynch 94). The product is a taboo, and is often made at home rather than purchased (Lynch 94). In connecting to globalization, Lynch claims “the implication was that innocent girls, who should simply be associated with local traditions, were now working in the global capitalist industry. Worse yet, they were sewing immoral products for white women” (Lynch 93).

This is a direct connection for how the influences of powerful nations hinder reproductive justice. Not only has the United States had a hand in implementing the factories that directly conflict with Sri Lankan values, but furthermore, it has served as a place in which the people are a taboo, not just the product. Suddi, or white women, are “hypersexualized figures” in Sri Lanka (Lynch 94). That is, there is a combination of women from a culture with a lack of sexual discourse, combined with both a product and a population that is seen as very sexual.

This conflict of cultures manifests in horrific ways for workers in EPZs. In 2014, one of Sri Lanka’s headline newspapers, ColomboPage, wrote an article on the increase of rape and assault in the country. Often times, sexual assault will occur within the factory, operating on structures of power. One women says “‘I am in search of new work, but I am afraid to take a job at another garment factory. There is no protection for women,’ she said. ‘I was not the first to be raped and I am scared that it will happen again'” (ColumboPage 1). In 2011, the United Nations claimed in a special report that a goal around the world is to “eliminate the exploitation of workers and protect their labour rights through fully enforcing national legislation on labour standards and promoting decent working conditions” (United Nations 6).

However, maybe that is not what Sri Lanka needs. Instead of continuously implementing these factories (and strategies to manage them), superpowers in the United States can stop having underwear produced in Sri Lanka. This is where I recognize my own biases: from a Westernized perspective, my first thought was that Sri Lanka should learn to embrace discussions around sexuality, or at least educate the populous on the idea that “underwear” and “white women” does not necessarily equal “sexuality”. At the same time, though, the Western world seems to generally not care. In my own research, in which I searched “Sri Lanka reproductive health” and “Sri Lanka assault” on BBC, nothing concerning the power dynamics inside and outside the factory appeared. Rather, there was one article on a specific instance of rape and murder (BBC 1).

This goes to suggest that a discourse on sexuality in Sri Lanka cannot be instigated by the Western world, which as a whole, is only doing so for means of production. Instead, I believe that the answer is to fully recognize each factor of the United States’ imposed attitudes of sexuality, whether they are implicit or explicit. It must be looked at an angle in which the reproductive justices of women are more important than manufacturing underwear.

What do you think?

 

Works Cited

Lynch, Caitrin. Juki Girls, Good Girls. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. 2007. Print.

“Outrage in Sri Lanka over teenager’s rape and murder”. BBC News. British Broadcasting Company, 20 May 2015. Web. 26 Mar. 2016.

“Rapes surge in Sri Lanka amid weak laws”. ColumboPage. ColomboPage, 17 Aug. 2014. Web. 26 Mar. 2016.

United Nations Inter-Agency Network on Women and Gender Equality. Gender Equality and Trade Policy. United Nations, 2011. Web. 26 Mar. 2011.

Global Abuse of Women

I am a student interested in the treatment of women as a whole. I want to express that violence against women is a global matter. Women are mistreated in both “developed” and “developing” countries. I want to give the reader an insight as to what women across the globe face on a daily basis.

In the article ” Violence Against Women: An Exploration of the Physical and Mental Health Trends among Immigrant and Refugee Women in Canada” the author states: “Violence against women is a global phenomenon and involves a spectrum of physical, sexual, and psychological acts of control, threat, aggression, abuse, and assault. Violence against women takes many forms, such as female infanticide, (girl) child abuse, incest, rape, sexual harassment, intimate partner violence (IPV), and abuse and neglect of older women…more than one in three women globally have experienced physical and/or sexual partner violence or sexual violence by a non-partner at some point in their lifetime.” Women are made as targets to the male eye and these targets are viewed as inferior, giving men the thought that they can treat women as they please. Women are used as “rag dolls” for a lack of a better term, as a way for men to “cope” or “control” their anger as a way to feel better about themselves. This without a doubt causes women to have a lack of self confidence.

In a report about Prevention of Violence Against Girls, As of 2012, it was estimated that approximately 60 million girls are sexually assaulted on their way to or at school every year. In some countries, this translates to a higher probability for a girl to experience sexual violence than to become literate.” Women have a higher chance of being sexually assaulted than becoming literate in third world countries and the article goes on to state that “Within the United States, a report for the National Institute of Justice revealed that approximately 14% of female students (aged 18-25) had experienced sexual violence during her time at university. Violence against women and girls at school is a pandemic issue that must be resolved globally in order to avoid and alleviate the detrimental effects of violence on individuals and communities.” Women are seen as creatures who’s only purpose in this world is to pleasure men. An education is not necessary if women are put on earth for the sake of men. A girls innocence is looked at as sexual in the eyes of some men and therefore results in sexual mistreatment of women. In the end, the blame is put on the girls who were raped, molested, or sexually assaulted in any way shape or form.

In a global news feed called, Violence Against Women Newsfeed, “A more recent analysis of WHO with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Medical Research Council, based on existing data from over 80 countries, found that globally 35% of women have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence. Most of this violence is intimate partner violence.” Women are seen as vulnerable and taking out anger on them is seen as the easiest way to lash out. That being said why would a person treat a woman they love with such disrespect and disgust?

In the local news feed, “Say NO – UNiTE to End Violence against Women is a global platform for advocacy and action by individuals, governments, civil society and UN partners which initiates, supports and demonstrates local and national advocacy efforts towards ending violence against women and girls. Through an interactive and social media friendly website, Say NO – UNiTE engages people from all walks of life and links local actions to an expanding global network.” NO! means NO! and many men and young boys take this word as, “If I keep going, she will like it. She just needs to adjust to it”. That is not the case and this site speaks of the act of saying NO! and the importance of expressing comfort empowering women as a whole.

Violence towards women is violence towards the world as a whole. Women are the life of earth and give live to the earth. That being said, women are more connected to the earth than man. Whether “developed” or “developing” every country has women who go through sexual violence and all countries need to be viewed in the same light. Women are women and they are all important.
Abuse