Something Called Colorism


My previous posts addressed the issues of post-colonization and the lack of development in Africa. The posts were a reflection about who was behind the lack of development and why. For my final post, I will be addressing the lasting after affects of post-colonialism that has also stunted development in Africa, but has nothing to do with money or greed. It has everything to do with lasting psychological and sociological affects on the indigenous people. It’s something called colorism.

According to Baruti (2000), colorism is a global prejudice that people of African ancestry have toward each other and seemingly use against or to the advantage of themselves and others with relatively similar complexion. Herring (2004) also defines colorism as “discriminatory treatment of individuals falling within the same ‘racial’ group on the basis of skin color” (p. 21).

Colorism has caused a social division among tribes in Africa. Due to colonization there is this perception that lighter skinned Africans are  Black seen as superior to their darker skinned brothers and sisters. For example the Rwandan genocide of 1994. The Europeans who colonized Rwanda turned indigenous Hutus against immigrant Tutsis. The Tutsis had more westernized features thus they were granted higher positions in society. The darker hutus were taking revenge on the Tutsis who had been favored and been in control for the longest time during colonial rule simply because they were lighter and more Caucasian looking. This genocide was caused by colorism used to maintain social order thanks to European imperialist.

European imperialists are to blame for bringing the “lighter skin is righter” mentality to indigenes of colonized lands in Africa. Pre-colonial colorism indoctrinated non-European populations with harmful racial ideologies. So, it wasn’t enough for the Western world to invaded, pressure, conquest, and colonize due to European nations scramble for African. It wasn’t enough for these once colonies to face poverty and be forced to take huge loans from theses wealthy western countries to sustain their countries leaving them with foreign debt. It wasn’t enough for the indigenous people to unwillingly give up their land to foreigners. It wasn’t enough. So, the Europeans instilled modern Western racism; light skin became a symbol of wealth and class.

Acknowledging the implications of pre-colonial colorism is the next step to ending this ideology. Some do not recognize that this ideology is wealth-based and encourages color prejudices. This ideology fail to see the role of social conditioning.

Works Cited

“Global Colorism: An Ethical Issue and Challenge in Bioethics.” Voices in Bioethics. N.p., 09 Sept. 2014. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.

Compass, Sociology. Sociology Compass 1/1 (2007): 237–254, 10.1111/j.1751-9020.2007.00006.x The Persistent Problem of Colorism: Skin Tone, Status, and Inequality (n.d.): n. pag. Web.

“Real Differences: History, Inequality and Oppression.” The Origins of Conflict in Rwanda. N.p., n.d. W

Land Grabbing in Africa: The New Colonialism


In my last post about post-colonization in African I discussed dependency theory and how it was a way for former colonizers to continue to exploit their former colonial countries with economic dependence. Essentially, trapping poor countries by large debts which prevent them from developing. To understand how Africa was trying to unscramble itself from foreign debt we have to look at land grabbing. “Land grabbing is the buying or leasing of large pieces of land in developing countries, by domestic and transnational companies, governments, and individuals” -(Stopafricanlandgrab).

I see land grabbing as a step towards re-colonization in Africa. Like the 19th century colonization, the new wave of land grabbing is well-intentioned. It is also well-planned, in the same way the 19th century colonization was by European powers of the time. But, this time around the African Union is complicit in this new plan. Introducing the “New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition in Africa” and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA).The  African Centre for Bio-Safety has labelled the plans as a “new wave of colonialism” (Mwesigire, 2014). The plans includes direct foreign investment in agriculture, allows the use of genetically modified seeds, and allows land ownership laws to favor these foreign companies. This takes away major opportunities from small-scale farmers. The foreign companies who will grow food for their own consumption are disempowering local farmers. How? They are essentially controlling their lives by turning them into consumers of products they cannot produce. Also, these genetically modified seeds the foreign companies are using are destroying the continents sustainability.

In Lorenzo Cotula’s book The Great African Land Grab? (2013). Provided evidence about the current situation by focusing on a handful of countries where land inventories have been conducted: Sudan, Nigeria, Mozambique, Liberia, and Ethiopia. The evidence Cotula provides about these five countries show that 10 million hectares of land was taken from the citizens and given to investors between 2004 to 2009. Also, a study reviewed in Cotula’s book showed that about half of all the land acquired in Africa between 2005 and 2011 was by Western companies; with European companies leading the way. This is a situation that resembles the colonial era land grabs.

In Ethiopia it was reported that the government has forced tens of thousands of people off their land, and given it to ‘investors’ in 2012. That land was bought Saudi Arabian and Chinese investors with the intention to grow rice and export that rice to their countries. Also, in Liberia, around 169,000 hectares had allegedly been given to the Equatorial Palm Oil (EPO) (a British palm oil company) by the government, without consulting over 7,000 people of the Jogbahn clan who have lived on the land for several generations.

As a result of the growing situation, the first Africa Conference on Land Grab is being organized at the Pan African Parliament. The goal of this conference is to halt the recolonization of the continent.

Works Cited:

“African Land Grabs; We Cannot Expect Companies and Financiers to Regulate Themselves.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 13 Mar. 2015. Web

“The Land Grabs in Africa You Don’t Hear about.” Africa Is a Country. 13 Nov. 2015.

“Land Grabbing in Africa, the New Colonialism.” This Is Africa. Web

Cotula, Lorenzo. The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System. Print.

“Stop Africa Land Grab – The Global Movement to Rollback Africa Land Grab.” Stop Africa Land Grab – The Global Movement to Rollback Africa Land Grab. Web.

GBV Reform

Throughout my last few blog posts I have been discussing different topics within the area of gender inequality and gender based violence (GBV). In this post, I will explore different types of GBV reform, again with a focus on Africa. I began my research with a news article called “Security reform key to protecting women” from an African magazine, AfricaRenewal. I then read a policy brief on gender justice written by the Institute for Justice and Reconciliation (IJR). I also found a scholarly article in sage journals titled, “Violence against women in South Africa”. Finally, I read an article from News24 titled, “The fight for gender equality needs men”.

GBV is defined by the UN as any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women… whether occurring in public or private life”. This can include physical harm, sexual exploitation, and much more. In 1996, the Human Rights Watch estimated over 50,000 cases of sexual assault in South Africa. By 2007, this number skyrocketed to more than 52,000 (SAGE). With such large numbers, it is obvious something must be done. Unfortunately, the police push a lot of GBV, especially sexual abuse, under the rug. In the same study mentioned above, only 7% of those assaults in 2006 were prosecuted.

Luckily, many things are being put into place to combat this problem. In Uganda, the United National Security Council Resolution 1325 was set in place to deal specifically with women’s rights and GBV. Uganda along with many other countries are setting up laws to criminalize GBV. For example, “Under Penal Code Cap. 120 in Ugandan statutory law, some acts of sexual violence against women are legally viewed as crimes against morality” (IJR). In South Africa, they have implemented two laws to combat GBV: Violence Act No 116 and Criminal Law (Sexual Offense and Related Matters). Both laws pride are very inclusive of many aspects within GBV. The first outlines the penalties of physical violence against women and the second outlines the penalties for sexual assault and related incidents.

However, even with legislation in place, we still often fall short; ““the security sector in Africa “finds itself falling short in its responsibility” to protect women, and “is itself often a direct threat to the security of women”” (UN). We need more awareness and active prevention. Not only do women’s groups need to step up, but men. “Promoting equitable gender norms and developing public policy aimed at engaging men and boys helps achieve equality at the household, community and societal levels” (News24). Women can only do so much in this Man’s world; we need their help to get more done.

If we all work together, men and women, developed and underdeveloped countries, then we can put an end to GBV.






Abortion Access in South Africa



Throughout the last past month, I have researched and reported on facets of reproductive justice, and how they are experienced by women all over the world in a globalized context. In the last two weeks, I have discussed sexuality and sexual exploitation:. This week, I will be talking about abortion.

Highly contested and strictly regulated around the world, I will be reporting on abortion access in South Africa. According to the Guttmacher Institute, the number of abortions carried out through the continent of Africa rose from 5.6 million in 2003 to 6.4 million in 2008 — a statistic that is attributed to the “increase in women of reproductive age” (“Facts on Abortion in Africa”). Yet, for the growing number of abortions, only 3% were performed in safe conditions (“Facts on Abortion in Africa”). Currently, only four countries in Africa have “relatively liberal abortion laws”: Zambia, Cape Verde, South Africa, and Tunisia (“Facts on Abortion in Africa”).

But interestingly, each of these countries have some history of conquest and colonization: British and Dutch in South Africa, British in Zambia, French in Tunisia, and Portuguese in Cape Verde. This goes to suggest that there may be more of a financial means for abortion services in these countries.

That is why I am particularly interested in South Africa. A staggering 91% of abortion-related deaths fell between 1994 and 1998 (“Facts on Abortion in Africa”), so, it could be arguable that it is more valuable to spend time focusing on other African countries — particularly those with access barriers. At the same time, though, I believe that it is insightful to look at the disparities of abortion access, and how they still manifest today.

In 1997, “The Choice of Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1996” became law (Dickson 277). This law allowed for the termination of pregnancy “at the women’s request during a period up to and including 12 weeks after gestation, and under defined circumstances” past that point (Dickson 277). Formerly, the “Abortions and Sterilisations Act of 1975” (Dickson 277) required a woman to obtain permission from her doctor, as well as recommendations from two other medical professionals (Dickson 277). As a reflection of these stricter regulations, illegal abortions took place rampantly prior to 1997. According to researcher Kim Dickson, roughly 6,000 to 120,000 illegal abortions took place for every 800 to 1,000 legal procedures per year (Dickson 277). That could be 120 illegal procedures for every legal one.

In talking about South Africa, however, it is important to think about colonization and development: not in context of the United States, but more so in thinking about Europe. Often time, people characterize Africa as underdeveloped. It is often forgotten that South Africa, in particular, is very developed and holds a healthy GDP. It is not that South Africa is lacking in skills and knowledge. Rather, it has faced a long history of discrimination.

From 1948 to 1996, structural discrimination was rampant. South Africa ruled under a system called apartheid: the geographical and developmental separation of races (South African History Online). The system started with land grabbing in 1913. The 1913 Land Act prohibited Black South Africans from accessing vast amounts of land, except in specified areas, to make room for Europeans developers to farm and enlist cheap labor (South African History Online). In a series of events fueled by white supremacy and racial segregation; political, economic, educational, and physical spheres were separated and made unequal. This marginalized and disenfranchised people of color — the vast majority of which make up South Africa — for over eighty years.

Due to the disparities faced by people of color, legal abortion prior to 1997 were really only available for white women. In 1998, 69% of legal abortions were provided to white women: although white individuals made up only 12% of the population at the time (Dickson 278). This means that there was a definite imbalance in women of color seeking illegal abortions, but with the end of apartheid in 1996, marginalized women received more freedoms — right?

Last year, a headline newspaper in South Africa published an article addressing the rise in illegal abortions. Police have discussed efforts to “crack down on illegal abortionists” — a profession that has newly been undertaken by “ruthless opportuntists” (Peters 1). The article continues to address the visibility of propaganda that advertises quick and easy procedures (Peters 1), which readily attracts an “influx of immigrants” that “come to the city” and engage in “unsafe “behaviors, leading to unwanted pregnancy (Peters 1).

Researchers around the world know the plight of unsafe abortions. Often times, abortions conducted by untrained persons result in extreme pain and death (“Facts on Abortion in Africa”). This may be characterized with underdevelopment in Africa, but the fact is, women want safe abortions, and they cannot get them. Furthermore, lack of safe access relates more to European taboos that “date back to colonial codes” (Okeowo 1). Even though South African apartheid is over, there is a clear “mistrust of the state” (Peters 1). While policies are updated and cultural shifts occur, there continues to be a culture of misinformation and exploitation.

How can the westernized world change their views about South Africa (and much of Africa, the continent) in order to disregard myths about underdevelopment?  How can we truly take the cost of colonization and globalization into account?

Works Cited

Dickson, Kim Eva et al.. “Abortion Service Provision in South Africa Three Years After Liberalization of the Law”. Studies in Family Planning 34.4 (2003): 277–284. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

“Facts on Abortion in Africa”. Guttmacher Institute. Guttmacher Institute, Nov. 2015. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

“The History of Separate Development in South Africa”. South African History Online. South African History Online, n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

Okeowo, Alexis. “Africa’s Abortion Wars”. The New York Times. The New York Times, 15 Dec. 2011. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

Peters, Sherlissa. “Illegal Abortion Continues to Thrive”. Independent Online. Cape Times, 13 Jul. 2015. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.


Human Trafficking (& Africa)

trafficking pic

During my last two blog posts I have been exploring different ideas surrounding gender based violence (GBV). I started with the general idea of GBV then narrowed it down to GBV in Africa. For this blog, I am delving even deeper into these ideas by focusing specifically on human trafficking in Africa. I began my research by reading a scholarly chapter written by the World Bank association that talks about many aspects of human trafficking. I then found an issue brief on human trafficking and migration in South Africa. This led me to find a news article about South African trafficking by the IRIN, a news agency based in Geneva. But I wanted more than just facts I wanted a face, something to make this issue seem more personal. I eventually found an article in BBC news that shares one Nigerian women’s story of having been sold into, and getting out of, human trafficking.

The internationally recognized definition of human trafficking, as defined by the UN, is, “ The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation” (World Bank). In simpler terms human trafficking is moving people against their will in order to exploit their labor, one way or another. This can be done in many forms such as domestic servitude, slavery, and even child soldier enrollment. However, the most common form of human trafficking is for sexual exploitation, or forced prostitution.

My first question was how, besides forced drug use, would you get a girl to do such a thing against her will? IRIN news explained, “In many cases, women and children are lured to South Africa with promises of jobs, education or marriage, only to be sold and sexually exploited” (IRIN). Traffickers create situations in which the victim does not have any choice but to obey. Other than false promises traffickers use debt-bondage, starvation, abuse, imprisonment, threats, and forced drug use to enlist victims. Sometimes women are even sold off by their families, husbands/ boyfriends, or kidnapped.

“The image of human beings being sold into virtual or actual slavery creates a moral imperative to act that seems inhuman to refuse,” (IRIN). Although it is hard to get a real statistic of how many people are exploited by this industry the International Labor Organization (ILO) estimated that between 1995-2004 2.45 million people around the world were sold into human trafficking. An overwhelming 80% of which were women. The worst part is, between 1999-2005, only around 7,700 of those victims were helped (World Bank). This is not okay!

So what is being done? The World Bank has made many steps towards prevention of human trafficking. There is a movement to strengthen regional work with migration and labor, monitoring and improving the analyses of rates or incidence, and increasing awareness (World Bank). South Africa is enlisting the help of the media to spread awareness about human trafficking and how to help survivors (IRIN). In 2008, Mozambique became the first country within the Southern African Development Community (SADC) to formally criminalize human trafficking. Although they were the first to pass a specific law, 12 other countries in the SADC recognize the Palermo Protocol. This calls for combatting human trafficking and aiding the surviving victims (IRIN). In 2010 South Africa created the Prevention & Combatting of Human Trafficking bill, although it has not yet been put into action (FMSP).

Although we are starting to do a lot to stop this horrible industry, we still have a long way to go. The human trafficking industry makes between 7 billion and 12 billion US dollars a year, making it the third most lucrative criminal activity (IRIN).

Kemi, a woman from Benin City Nigeria, shared her story with BBC news. She was promised a better job in Italy so that she could support her family. Once there, however, she found herself faced with a job in prostitution. At first she refused but after being starved she finally complied. She ended up working for 3 years before she was able to escape. Even after Kemi had escaped she didn’t truly feel free. She was too ashamed from her experience to return home to her family with no money. She said, “They are wicked…the woman that sent me has two girls. She is sending them to the best schools with the money that I earned with my body” (BBC). This quote shocked me. The trafficker who sold Kemi into three years of forced prostitution has 2 daughters! Does she think consider this morally acceptable; what if it had been her daughters?

The human trafficking epidemic is not just statistics from “over there”. This affects women and children everywhere. Each woman sold into this kind of exploitation has a face, a family, and a life.


Dependency Theory


In my most recent post about colonization to post-colonization in African I ended with this sentence “Africa is left to unscramble itself.” To understand why; we have to look at dependency theory. Colonialism allowed wealthy western countries to “take” unclaimed territories or “their colonies” for material benefits. Now, these once colonies face poverty and are forces to take huge loans from these wealthy western countries (their colonizers) to sustain their countries. Leaving them with foreign debt. (Foreign debt: A debt that a country, an organization in a country, or a resident individual in a country owes to those in other countries.)

Therefore, dependency theory is a way for former colonizers to continue to exploit their former colonial countries with economic dependence. This is the main cause of poverty not only in Africa, but globally. Dependency allows countries to develop at an uneven rate. Why? Because wealthy countries have exploited poor countries in the past and continue to do so today through foreign debt and foreign trade.

In Alfred Ndi’s article “Why economic growth theories became a fiction of development in postcolonial Africa: Critiquing foreign aid policy as discourse” (2010), shows how “economic growth theories that had been applied do not bring a higher per capita income or GDP and social progress to Africans, but rather lead to underdevelopment by using dependency, power and new ideologies.” – (Nielsen)

Poor countries are trapped by large debts which prevent them from developing. Africa received $540 billion in loans from these wealthy western nations such as United States. This was done through the World Bank and IMF. Today, African countries have currently paid back $550 billion of their debt, but due to compound interest African countries are still in $295 billion in debt. Since, African countries are constantly paying off debts they are unable to develop economically or socially. Leaving theses countries to continue to remain undeveloped. Although, opinions about dependency theory are biased. Dependency theorists think “economic aid is not necessarily the key to reducing poverty and developing, but rather debt relief may be a more effective step.” Meanwhile, others think that aid encouraged Africans to move further and on the other hand some of the scholars regard aid as a way to construct Africa’s ‘dependency’ from the west.

Through unequal economic relations with wealthy countries in the form of continued debts and foreign trade, poor countries continue to be dependent and unable to tap into their full potential for development.” – Boundless Sociology

Works Cited

Author: Jorgen Ulff-Moller Nielsen. The Effects of Colonialism on African Economic Development (n.d.): n. pag. Web.

Author: Martin Odei Ajei. Africa’s Development: The imperatives of Indigenous Knowledge and Values

“Dependency Theories.” Boundless Sociology. Boundless, 21 Jul. 2015. Retrieved 01 Apr. 2016 from

Gender Based Violence (& Africa)



In my last blog post, I introduced the topic of gender inequality. One theme within this topic that stood out to me was the high prevalence of gender-based violence (GBV). This week, I decided to look further into this concept. I began my research by looking up more general information about GBV, starting with a scholarly article by Andrew Morrison and Maria Orlando. I then followed up by reading an issue brief on GBV by GBC Health. When searching for news articles, I found one entitled Africa Leads in Gender-Based Violence by eNCA. The high rates of GBV in Africa caught my eye so, for my last article, I read a piece from AfricaRenewal, an African news magazine.

The United Nations first defined GBV in 1993 as, “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women… whether occurring in public or private life” (Morrison & Orlando; 5). This can include: beatings, forced marriage, dowry-related violence, marital rape, sexual harassment, intimidation at work or educational institutions, forced pregnancy, forced abortion or sterilization, and even human trafficking.

Technically, GBV can affect any gender, however, when most people mention GBV they are referring to violence against women. This gender difference is mostly due to society’s ideas about women. In Africa, beating, or physically intimidating, your wife is a “deeply held conviction” by men (AfricaRenewal). The shocking part is that it is not just men with these ideas. In Tanzania, “60 percent of females and more than 50 percent of males aged 13 to 24 years believe it is acceptable for a husband to beat his wife under certain circumstances” (GBCHealth; 2). With such beliefs being so common, no wonder the rates of GBV are so high.

In South Africa, it is estimated that 45.6% of women have suffered from physical or sexual abuse (eNCA). It is also estimated that one South African woman is killed every 6 hours by their male partner (GBCHealth; 1). And this epidemic is not just in Africa. It has been estimated that 38% of women, worldwide, have been killed by their partners, and another 35% of women across the globe have experienced extreme GBV (eNCA).

So, what is being done to combat GBV? In 1981, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women was formed, declaring that violence against women was a violation of their rights (AfricaRenewal). There are laws, in such places as Kenya, which prohibit wife beating and marital rape. However, these ideals are not very well enforced. Often, without physical evidence women’s’ claims are dismissed by the police. Because of this, many women’s experiences go un-noticed. In an attempt to help survivors of GBV, the UN has created a program to help women cope and even prevent further assaults (GBCHealth; 4).

With legislations being so unreliable many people, including myself, believe the only way to truly ensure that GBV stops is to change the social discourse around women’s rights. People need to learn more about GBV and its implications for, not only the individual, but also the community. Many programs are in place to spread awareness but we need more. “We have to get more women to know their legal rights. We have to teach our people why it is important to protect women and how it benefits the entire community when women are afforded better protection,” (AfricaRenewal).



Globalization in Africa Introduction Post


I am interested in globalization in Africa because I was born and raised in an African Country, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Growing up, I did not notice most things that I would notice now after years of school and experience. Last summer, I recently went to visit the Congo after being away for 8 years and I noticed many changes, some positive, some negative. Although I have seen how globalization has impacted my home country, I would like to widen and better understand the impact of globalization on the whole continent. I would like to research how globalization has affected different countries and the factors that led to it; economic, political leadership, etc.

In one of the scholarly article I have chosen to utilize for my blog post, the author states that “Globalization has turned the world into the big village” (Ibrahim, 2009:86). I thought that this is an accurate definition of globalization that depicts the realities of globalization. Usually, when globalization is defined, it is often described as the integration of the world politically, economically and socially. The definition by the author of the article I chose provides a visualizing image of globalization. In a village, there is often social hierarchy. There are the village king or chief, his entourage then the regular habitants of the village. Similarly, in globalization, there is social hierarchy, there are countries that benefit and those that do not benefit from globalization. This inequality is what I attempt to explore in my blog posts. 

The continent of Africa has undergone many different changes that could contribute to its decision to globalize in the last century. Many African Nations were enslaved and were able to gain independence in the late 1950s to early 1960s. In addition to that, these newly industrialized countries suffer from weak leadership. The leaders of many African nations are corrupt and want to benefit from the natural resources these nations possess. The decision of African nations to globalize has impacted Africa culturally and economically and politically. The rise of democracies in Africa could be credited to the Globalization Project (Shaka, 2013). With globalization, there is also the emergence of the struggle for survival. This disrupts the social, traditional and cultural dynamics of communities. Which is interesting because globalization is meant to increase economic growth, of course this is not applicable to everyone.  As I explore this theme, I would like to learn more about the inequality that is created by globalization. It is unfair that some members benefit while others don’t because of development.

Using the Google Scholar, I found an article from the (International Journal of Humanities and Social Science) titled The Impact of Globalization on Africa. I then proceeded to the United Nations University website, where I found a Policy Brief titled Linking Globalization to Poverty.I also researched a local newspaper from the region of my choice. I found a South-African newspaper called the Financial Mail. In this newspaper, I found an article on globalization titled Boardroom Tails: We really must grow up. Lastly, I found a Western newspaper article from the Guardian titled I was wrong. Free market trade policies hurt the poor. In addition to that, I also found an interview video about the impact of globalization on Africa by Kingsley Moghalu Africa has become a playground for globalization.

Drawing from these different research sources, I hope to gain a better understanding of the impact of globalization on the region of Africa. These sources will also guide my readers understand the individual, state, and international level of analysis of the issue.

Discussion Question:

What is your opinion on globalization?

Watch Who wins from globalization? it might help form an opinion on this vast topic.

Works Cited

Anderson, Mark, and Claudine Spera. “Kingsley Moghalu: ‘Africa Has Become a Playground for Globalisation’ – Video.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 4 Aug. 2014. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.
Byers, Stephen. “Stephen Byers: I Was Wrong. Free Market Trade Policies Hurt the Poor.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 19 May 2003. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.
Crotty, Ann. “Boardroom Tails: We Really Must Grow up.” Financial Mail. Financial Mail, 10 Mar. 2016. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.
Ibrahim, Alhaji A. “Neoliberalism, and Globalization in Africa.” International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (2008): n. pag. Center for Promoting Ideas. Center for Promoting Ideas, 15 Aug. 2013. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.
Muyale-Manenji, Fridah. “The Effects of Globalization on Culture in Africa in the Eyes of an African Woman – World Council of Churches.” The Effects of Globalization on Culture in Africa in the Eyes of an African Woman – World Council of Churches. World Council of Churches, 01 Jan. 1998. Web. 16 Mar. 2016.
Nissanke, Machiko, and Erik Thorbecke. Linking Globalization to Poverty.
Helsinki: United Nations U (UNU). World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER), 2007. United Nations University. UNU-Wider, 2007. Web. 13 Mar. 2016.