A Hope for the Future of Pakistan

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Throughout my blog posts I’ve focused on poverty and its effects on the street children of Pakistan and how many of them have come to live on the streets in the first place. I’ve also discussed the healthcare and education systems, or lack thereof, and how these effect street children. For my final post I think it’s important for me to discuss the resources that are available to these kids which feed them, give them clothes and a place to stay, provide medical care and basic education, and provide them with hope and the skills they need to create a life off of the streets.

  1. The Azad Foundation (AF), based out of the city of Karachi, is one of the leading NGOs that has dedicated its efforts to supporting Pakistan’s street children. They are supported by UNICEF (United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund), and have been supporting street children since 2001. The Azad Foundation has really pulled through on so many levels. It seems that they cover all aspects of the issues at hand:
  • Advocacy and fighting for the government to protect the rights of children
  • Prevention and protection
  • Social integration, rehabilitation, and re-integration
  • Providing of food, hygienic facilities, medical care, and non-formal education

They go as far as tracking down family of the children, getting documentation for the children, and covering counseling expenses as well as traveling expenses to get them back to their families. They also provide skill development, vocational training, and job placement. AF has also introduced an biometric-based electronic child registration system for children on the streets of Karachi to support their birth registration. (Street Child United)

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Pakistani street boys rehabilitated by the Azad Foundation.

The Azad Foundation is responsible for many projects all revolving around the well-being of children. (A full list of all of their projects can be found here.) One of the projects I feel is worth mentioning is the Sports for Development project, started in 2012. This project encourages team building skills, and teaches street children how to participate in and play football as a group. Nine of these children even went on to represent Pakistan in the 2014 Street Child World Cup, which is an international football event organized to acknowledge the rights of children living and/or working on streets around the world. They won the bronze medal and defeated India, Kenya, Mauritius and the Philippines. Below is a quote from the AF website which I found to be insightful:

Sport is recognized globally as means of healthy development of both children and adult. It is also proven to be the perfect vehicle for human development and peace-building in the society. Azad Foundation is utilizing the power of sports to engage children and vulnerable communities for protective and preventive measures.

pakfootballThis project has helped children from all over Pakistan. A ninth grader named Owais recounts his experience before and after joining the Azad Foundation football team. “When I was living in the street, no one treated me with respect; I did not know anything as I was illiterate. I was confused once I left home and the city was full of problems for me. Then I found a way through Azad Foundation who supported me and helped me in studies. Now I am in the ninth grade. After I started football I found new friends and now people respect me.” (The Citizen)

2. Slumabad is a unique organization that was created back in 2007 by Muhammad Sabir, a man who had grown up in poverty in the slums by Lahore. Growing up he had spent his time collecting trash and selling water bottles to make some money for his family. He would always try to read snippets of newspapers while on the job, though he was unable to read much at all. Eventually his parents allowed to go to a government school where he learned to read English and he began to read everything he could get his hands on. 55800678c424aHe continued collecting trash in the mornings, going to school during the day, and studying all night by candle light in his tent, since he did not have access to electricity. After reading Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations, a story about a boy who overcame the struggles of his social class through hard work, he realized that his past did not define him or his future. He decided to devote himself to addressing the large issues of sanitation and education within slums of Pakistan. He helps children enroll in schools, builds mobile toilets for people in slums and is working on turning human waste into fertilizer and/or biogas to generate energy. He now is a fellow for the Emerging Leaders of Pakistan (ELP). He has visited the United States to meet with entrepreneurs, policymakers and civil society leaders to discuss practices that can be used in Pakistan. (Khawar)

3. Pakistan Society, the first NGO in Pakistan, was established in 1982 in Karachi and provides social services, educational services and health care for many people, but focuses highly on the youth. It started a drug harm reduction program and the HIV/AIDS Prevention Program for Injecting Drug Users. They created the shelter home and residential facility, called the Promise House, for street kids of Karachi who are solvent abusers. They provide them with food, clothing, a place to sleep, medical care, and counseling. They also help them through detox, provide non-formal education, and teach them trades that can provide some sort of an income. Their goal is to help them integrate back into society in a functional way. They provide 24-hour emergency medical care for street children to receive immediate attention. (Pakistan Society)

4. Nai Zindagi, (meaning “New Life” in English), is an NGO that has been in service for over ten years providing drop-in centers where street children can receive drug treatment and medical care. They’ve helped thousands of children all over Pakistan. They are the sponsor of Project Smile, which runs 8 hours a day, 6 days a week and provides them with food, clothing and basic health care. Project Smile conducted a survey where they asked street children to talk to them about their life circumstances. From the survey they found that self-harm was a very common problem among the children. Since then, they’ve provided self-harm reduction education. They also provide sexual education to them since HIV/AIDS is very common among them. They understand that it’s very hard to reach out and engage the children, which is why they know the importance of providing a drop-in center with extensive hours. (Towe, et al.)

5. Orphanages: On a previous blog post I received a question on whether or not Pakistan has orphanages. After doing research I found that there are orphanages throughout the country. A Pakistani organization has put together a comprehensive directory of the major NGOs in Pakistan, and lists all of the Pakistani orphanages. However, the organization who has compiled this list warns that it is highly recommended to review the credentials of each orphanage, and that orphanages in Pakistan have been known to be fronts for the trafficking of children. (KGM Consultants)

. . . . .

Overall, the voices of the street children of Pakistan are starting to be heard. Many organizations and groups have started popping up all over Pakistan in the past couple decades in order to protect the rights of these children. Hopefully the Pakistani government will start implementing more laws, like the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2011, that give protection to the rights of children.

 

Citations:

“Azad Foundation.” Azad Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2016. <http://www.azadfoundation.org/index.php>.

“Pakistan.” Street Child United. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2016. <http://www.streetchildunited.org/teams/pakistan/>.

“Brazil Beckons for Pakistan’s Street Kid Footballers.” The Citizen. N.p., 25 Mar. 2014. Web. 11 Apr. 2016.

“List of Orphans Care Centers in Pakistan.” Orphanages in Pakistan. KGM Consultants, n.d. Web. 11 Apr. 2016.

Khawar, Amna. “Surviving Pakistan’s Slums: The Extraordinary Story of Mohammad Sabir.” Dawn. N.p., 16 June 2015. Web. 13 Apr. 2016.

“Program For Street Kids.” Pakistan Society. N.p., 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2016.

Towe, Vivian L. et al. “Street Life and Drug Risk Behaviors Associated with Exchanging Sex Among Male Street Children in Lahore, Pakistan.” The Journal of Adolescent Health : Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 11 Nov. 2008. Web. 16 Apr. 2016.

 

The Education System of Pakistan

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For many people, education has been the key they needed to pursue a life out of poverty. In Pakistan, many children are never given the opportunity to a proper education, or any education for that matter. As of April 19, 2010, the Pakistani constitution has included the new Article 25 A which states, “”The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law.” Of course, the introduction of this act, known as the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2011, is a great first step to providing education to all children, though there are still many obstacles that stand in the way. These obstacles include poverty, religious discrimination, gender inequality, military conflict, and geographic location. (RTE Pakistan)

In 2013 the NGO, UNICEF, reported that there were about 20 million children in Pakistan that do not have access to education, and about 7.3 million are of primary school age, which are the ages of 5-9. (East Asia Forum) Funding also seems to be an issue when it comes to education systems. The Pakistani government has promised on several occasions to spend 4% of the GDP on education but have failed to follow through. It turns out that only 2.68% GDP has been allocated toward education for 2015-2016. (Ary News) Although, there has been somewhat of an increase of budget toward education in past year, though a lot of it is being put into higher education, for those who have already had the privilege of attending school throughout their childhoods.

There are two types of street children in Pakistan: those who sleep on the streets because of no where else to go, and those who have a family and home to return to at the end of a long day of working on the streets. Of the children who do have families, many of them are unable to have the option of schooling because their families require them to work full time to help support the family. Although access to free education is a now a human right under the Pakistani constitution, many areas don’t even have any public school facilities for the children to go to. Parents end up having to pay out of pocket for private schooling which can be unaffordable at times. Parents then need to make the tough decision of choosing which of their children will or will not attend.

One woman from Karachi, Bilqis Khatoon, told her story to the editors of a Pakistan-based blog called “Let Us Build Pakistan.” She was a widow with four children who lived in the slums with no public school in sight. She worked two jobs to send 2 of her children to private school. One ended up having to drop out to work full time in a garment factory, while the oldest of the two was also working 6 hours a day at a market to help her pay for all of his school fees. (Zaidi)

And there’s no doubt that there’s a large gender inequality issue. There are more than one million more girls out of school than there are boys. (LUBP) Many have heard of Malala Yousafzai, a Pakistani girl who is now seen as a modern heroine. malalaquote2Being an outspoken activist for education for girls, she was shot in the head in 2012 by the Taliban at the age of 15, but survived miraculously with no brain damage. The Taliban believed that she was spreading Western culture by advocating for the education of women. Malala, who is now 18, spoke out about how she and her female schoolmates would show up to school in plain clothes instead of their uniforms so as to not look like students. They would hide their books under their shawls. (Mackey) Terrorism has had a major effect on access to education all around. Many people believe that the Taliban view education as a threat, which is why the Taliban focus energy on destroying schools. They are responsible for the damage of 460 schools in a region in northwestern Pakistan known as FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas) that borders Afghanistan. (East Asia Forum)

With so much hatred in the world, and so many stressors weighing down on these children it’s really a relief to hear about all of the NGO’s and programs out there that were made to support these less privileged children. Recently two teenage siblings, ages 12 and 15, decided to set aside time to teach street children for an hour and a half a day, 6 days a week. They decided to take advantage of an empty lot next to a cafe in Karachi to hold the sessions. They teach the children basic math, and English and Urdu reading and writing skills. To keep the children motivated they pay the children 20 rupees at the end of each session as a payment for studying hard. A local teacher found out about the sessions and has also joined the teens in offering her time to teach them. Other locals have decided to support the efforts by offering to bring juice boxes to give to the children. (Salim) Hopefully their efforts can inspire others to take time out of their days to do similar acts.

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Street children from Karachi attending free school that was founded by teenagers.

Citations:

“Pakistan’s Disgrace: The Shocking State Of Its Education System.” Pakistan’s Disgrace: The Shocking State Of Its Education System. East Asia Forum, 30 Sept. 2013. Web. 08 Apr. 2016.

“One Million Signature Campaign.” Right To Education Pakistan RTE Pakistan Article 25A. RTEPakistan, n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2016.  

“Govt Suggested Measures for Spending 4% of GDP on Education.” Ary News. N.p., 18 July 2015. Web. 08 Apr. 2016.      

Zaidi, Asif. “Pakistan Continues to Perpetuate Inequalities in Education – by A Z.” Let Us Build Pakistan. LUBP, 13 June 2013. Web. 08 Apr. 2016.                                                       

Mackey, Robert. “Pakistani Activist, 15, Is Shot by Taliban.” The Lede. N.p., 9 Oct. 2012. Web. 08 Apr. 2016.

Salim, Yursa. “Bringing Education to the Streets of Karachi – The Express Tribune.” The Express Tribune. N.p., 09 Mar. 2016. Web. 09 Apr. 2016.

Health Care and Risk Behaviors

children-slum

As I mentioned in my introduction blog post, I’ve been interested in the topic of  poverty and homelessness in Pakistan and the effect the two have on Pakistan’s children. Pakistan has it’s issues revolving around affordable housing for low income people, leading many to live within slums, or katchi abadis, with inadequate water and sewerage systems. Living in poor conditions can really take a toll on a person’s health, not only physically but mentally, and the health of children living in poverty is what I’m interested in writing about today.

First of all, I’d like to talk about Pakistan’s overall health care system. According to The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Biennial Report on Pakistan, the country does have “a well-developed and multi-tiered health infrastructure” in place, but access to healthcare is where the difficulties lie. It is mentioned by WHO that security-compromised areas in the north, as well as many natural disasters that followed a huge earthquake that struck Muzaffarabad in 2005 are some of the reasons behind poor accessibility to health services (Abid). There’s also an issue of access depending on location. Urban areas typically have more health resources than rural areas.

Then there’s the issue with funding. Only 0.5% of Pakistan’s GDP is spent on health (WHO). (For some perspective, the U.S. allocates 17.6% of its GDP toward health care) (Kane). Most people in Pakistan must pay for health expenses out of pocket. Pakistan receives a lot of foreign assistance for health, and is the 6th largest recipient of official aid in the world. In 2007, Official Development Assistance (ODA) was given to Pakistan with a value of 2.2 billion US dollars (Abid).

. . . . .

Of course, without an accessible health care system many people will suffer, especially those living in poverty. Street children in Pakistan are effected greatly without access to healthcare. One reason being that sexually transmitted diseases are very common among street children and very few of them get the attention and care they need. The AZAD Foundation, a Pakistani NGO that works with street children found that 4 out of every 10 street children they examined were infected with STD’s. (IRIN) Sexual exploitation is a very big issue among street children. For many of them, sex is the only commodity they have to offer in exchange for food, shelter and drugs, otherwise known as “survival sex” or “transactional sex.” It is not uncommon for them to exchange sex for as little as a dish of rice. A lot of them are also forced into gangs where they are pimped out for cash. Living this lifestyle can become a vicious cycle because many of these children start off in the sex industry at a young age and when they grow up it becomes the only way they know how to make a living. Sometimes they go on to become the leaders of gangs themselves, leading other young street children to do the work for them. A UNICEF evaluation report on street children mentioned that 80%-90%of street children are victims of sexual and physical abuse by adults and older children within their own gangs. (Aman)

And the authorities aren’t any help; police officers are guilty of partaking in sexual acts with street children as well. An NGO that works to protect the rights of street children, the Initiator Human Development Foundation (IHDF), found that policemen account for 60% of the sexual abuse that Pakistani street children are subjected to. (AFP) It’s really heartbreaking to think that the people who should be keeping them from harm are the ones inflicting it. Luckily, IHDF provides medical facilities, along with shelter, vocational training, and rehab to street children, and has been doing so for the past 16 years. There are a few other NGO’s, such as Nai Zindagi, that help provide medical assistance to street children. Nai Zindagi is an NGO supported by UNICEF that runs Project Smile which is open 8 hours a day, 6 days a week. It provides them with a safe location to go that has food, counseling, clothing, and trained health and social care professionals who can refer them to more intensive medical care and drug treatment. Treatment for drug abuse is definitely a big need for these children.

Many street children have drug addictions and start using at a very early age. Reasons for drug use vary from being used as a coping mechanism, to reducing hunger, to peer pressure. Drugs are very accessible on the street. Heroin is a common drug among the children and it is used to help them fall asleep and keeps them from feeling hungry. Unfortunately using heroin by injection can lead high risk of HIV/AIDS. Between sexual abuse and intravenous drug usage, about 49 percent of street children are at risk of HIV/AIDS.

glue

Apart from heroin it seems that inhalants are the number one choice for street drugs among the children, due to the cheap cost. A lot of them sniff volatiles for a high and they are easily accessible, especially because volatiles are common byproducts of many industries in urban areas. There are serious long term effects for using solvents such as irreversible brain damage, and respiratory depression, as well as sudden death. It is said that the children abuse solvents more than drugs, because of the cheapness. In a scholarly article by the Journal of Urban Health researchers found that over four fifths of the children they sampled began their drug usage because of peer pressure. Peer pressure is a big factor because most of the street children don’t have any contact with family, so street gangs become their families. Knowing this statistic has been helpful in that Project Smile (run by UNICEF as mentioned above) has begun teaching peer outreach and communication skills to the children, as well as effective ways of reducing risks associated with drug use and sexual behaviors. Thankfully in the past couple decades more research has gone into the topic of the effects that living on the streets has on children of Pakistan, and has led to the development of many NGO’s that can help them, even if the national health care system can’t.

 

Citations:

Abid, Ni’ma Saeed. WHO-Pakistan Biennial Report 2012-13. Rep. N.p.: n.p., 2013. WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office. World Health Organization, 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 4 Apr. 2016.

World Health Organization. Pakistan. WHO EMRO | Health System Strengthening | Programmes | Pakistan. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Apr. 2016.

Kane, Jason. “Health Costs: How the U.S. Compares With Other Countries.” PBS. PBS, 22 Oct. 2012. Web. 04 Apr. 2016.

“Number of Street Children on the Rise.” IRIN. N.p., 04 May 2005. Web. 07 Apr. 2016.

“Children Sexually Abused on Pakistan’s Streets.” Dawn. AFP, 26 Aug. 2011. Web. 07 Apr. 2016.

“Most of the Street Children Are Boys.” The Express Tribune. N.p., 28 May 2010. Web. 7 Apr. 2016.           

Aman, Aslam. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL REINTEGRATION OF STREET CHILDREN PROJECT. Rep. Islamabad: UH&H Consulting (Pvt.), 2012. UNICEF. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.     

Sherman, S. S. “Drug Use, Street Survival, and Risk Behaviors Among Street Children in Lahore, Pakistan.” Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 82.3_suppl_4 (2005): Iv113-v124. Web.

Housing in Pakistan and Why Children Live on the Streets

A Pakistani girl comforts her brother near her family's makeshift tent in a slum in Islamabad, Pakistan, Monday, Oct. 21, 2013. Slums, which are built on illegal lands, have neither running water or sewage disposal. (AP Photo/Muhammed Muheisen)

Housing has become a huge problem all throughout Pakistan, and that is due to many issues such as increased rate of population growth, high inflation, a lack of initiative by the Pakistani government to develop low-income housing, and an overall unfair land administrative system. According to Dawn, a Pakistani newspaper based out of Karachi, there is currently a housing shortage all throughout Pakistan of over 9 million housing units. Due to little housing one-third of Pakistan’s population make their homes in slums, which are called katchi abadis in Urdu (Natiq). These slums are technically built on illegal lands, and have inadequate water and sewage systems. There is a huge Christian and Afghan refugee population in the katchi abadis.

The system itself for obtaining land/property is very one-sided and unstructured, and seems to be in favor of the upper class.  A lot of the State’s subsidized land was obtained at cheap rates by commercial enterprises who represented professional groups, such as Defense Housing Authorities (which is an organization that provides housing for current/retired military personnel). These enterprises would flip the developed land for double the price and pocket the gains (Haider). This reselling of developed land occurs with low-income housing units as well, turning the affordable-housing into not-so-affordable housing.

And now, not only is there little to no structure in place for low-income/subsidized housing units, but the slums that are home to millions of people are being taken away. It is a lose-lose situation. Just this past year a government group, the Capital Development Authority (CDA), decided to launch operation Zarb-e-Ghareeb, which bulldozed the katchi abadis of Islamabad without giving the people any notice. The CDA and the privileged people of Islamabad felt that these homes were eyesores. The CDA stated, “They look like ugly villages, whereas Islamabad was considered as one of the most beautiful cities of the world.” (Barnabas Fund)

… And a lot of the people living in these slums work for the CDA and the upper class of Islamabad! They are the guards, the maids, the cooks, the cobblers, the plumbers, the vegetable vendors…etc. etc. etc. !

The reality is that the population has grown so much that the CDA wants more space for development, and due to their lack of hearts and morals they’ve made more space at the expense of hundreds of thousands of people. They don’t want to accept that there is a problem within their community, so for them it is an out-of-sight, out-of-mind attitude.

Pakistan-bulldozes-Islamabad-slums-katchi-abadisChildren watching as their homes are bulldozed to the ground by the Capital Development Authority (CDA).

* * *

Homeless children dwell on the streets of the big cities of Pakistan. Other than the fact that sometimes their homes are literally taken away from them, as discussed above, there are other reasons as to why they live on the streets. Some of these children are abandoned by their parents, or are orphans whose parents died because of illness or war. There is also a large problem where families move to the cities from rural areas in hopes for job opportunities, and typically there are not enough jobs, as well as not enough housing. Their children end up being exploited by the parents to make a living on the streets. According to a scholarly article in Social Science and Medicine most of the children are working between 8 and 12 hours everyday with an average income of 40 to 60 rupees per day (one US dollar = 60 rupees) (Ali). Some end up choosing to runaway from home.  Also, children can become peer pressured into street life and form drug addictions, which I will discuss in another blog post.

Many times children are abused at home and runaway to the cities to live among other children. In an online article a 12-year-old boy named Zia-ul-Haq recounts his reasons for living on the streets. He says, “my family wanted me to earn money. When I didn’t they beat me so I left” (IRIN). A Pakistani NGO, called the Azad Foundation, along with UNICEF, found that in the city of Karachi, 54.1% of street children left their homes between ages 10 and 12 years old. (Aslam) When the children of Karachi were asked why they left home the UNICEF report shows the reasons as:

  • poverty (26.4%),
  • peers/friends influence (19.7%)
  • violence (17.3%).
  • the behavior of the parents (12.7%)
  •  drug addiction (9.7%)

Of course, children find ways to get by living this lifestyle. Unfortunately many children make their way by begging, pick-pocketing, and also soliciting themselves for sex. However, many find work by shoe shining, cleaning cars, collecting waste paper, and selling water, newspapers and other goods in small hotels. I’ve always felt that children have great resilience and perseverance. I feel that many children still have the capacity to grow and adapt under harsh conditions, and feel that this quote by Judith Rodin represents that idea: “resilience is not only about responding to shock and stress but also about learning and continuing to adapt and grow because of the experience.”

 

Citations:

Haider, Murtaza. “Here’s How to House the Poor in Pakistan…” Dawn. N.p., 25 Feb. 2015. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.

Natiq, Ale. “Zarb-e-Ghareeb: Pakistan’s Crackdown on Islamabad Slums.” Www.roshnipak.com. N.p., 30 July 2015. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.

“Pakistan Capital Wants to Bulldoze “ugly” Christian Slums “to Protect the Beauty of Islam”.” Barnabas Fund. Barnabas Aid, 15 Dec. 2015. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.

Rehman, I.A. “No Right to Housing.” Dawn. N.p., 18 Feb. 2016. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.

“Number of Street Children on the Rise.” IRIN News. IRIN, 5 May 2005. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.           

Aman, Aslam. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL REINTEGRATION OF STREET CHILDREN PROJECT. Rep. Islamabad: UH&H Consulting (Pvt.), 2012. UNICEF. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.                      

Ali, Moazzam. “Street Children in Pakistan: A Situational Analysis of Social Conditions and Nutritional Status” Social Science and Medicine. Vol 59. Issue 8. (2004): 1707-1717.

Rodin, Judith . The Resilience Dividend. New York: PublicAffairs, 2014.

Poverty and its Effects on the Children of Pakistan

Child of Pakistan

I’ve always had such a love and appreciation for children. They are the future voices and innovators of all societies, and it kills me to know that children all over the world are brought into unfortunate situations against their freewill, being born into impoverished societies that remain caught in poverty traps. Although the country of Pakistan is far from ranking highest in regards to economic inequality throughout the world (see diagram below), there is definitely still a large gap between the wealthy and the poor. According to the United Nations Global Report on Human Settlements in 2003 there were 20.6 million homeless people in Pakistan, and as of 2014 it has been reported that there are 1.5 Million Homeless Children. To put it into some sort of perspective, there were 610,042 people reported to be homeless in the United States in 2013, with 138,149 being children (Henry, 2013).

Gini Index

(This is a Gini Index diagram which represents national income equality around the world. The light yellow represents close to 100% economic equality, while the black represents 100% inequality, where one person has all the income. Pakistan falls toward the lower end of the spectrum – toward more economic equality.)

With poverty comes many hardships like inadequate access to healthcare, education, or safe housing. To me, these are the largest and most obvious outcomes associated with poverty. Along with these difficulties lie other struggles among the 1.5 million children such as addiction, abuse, and gang violence. I want to know, how did all of these children end up in this situation? Each child has their own story. Some had connections with their families at one point in time, others were abandoned at birth. I would like to dig deeper into every possible aspect surrounding the life of a homeless child. Due to the fact that I’m only able to spread my research out across 4 blog posts I wanted to separate all of the information I’m learning into several subcategories of how poverty impacts Pakistani children. I will focus on healthcare access and education, abuse and addiction, as well as housing and how they found their way on to the streets in the first place. I will finish off my blog postings by delving into some of the organizations that have been developing for some time now that help bring in Pakistani children off the streets and teach them the skills meant to bring trust, hope, and stability back into their hearts and minds.

* * *

I decided to solidify my research of how poverty can effect children by only focusing on one particular country. For this I chose Pakistan. In all honesty I did not choose Pakistan for any particular reason other than that I have some good friends who were raised in Karachi, Pakistan and I wanted to further my understanding of the different social classes and inequalities within the country. There are many different sources that I’ll be using, but mainly I will use a 2015 field research report called The State of Children in Pakistan, which was funded by United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF). There is also an online Pakistani newspaper called “Dawn” that I’ll be taking articles from, along with information from American newspapers.

 

Sources:

United States. US Department of Housing and Urban Development. Office of Ommunity Planning and Development. The 2013 Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. By Meghan Henry. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Https://www.hudexchange.info/. Web.

United States. United Nations. Global Report on Human Settlments 2003. Sterling. VA: EarthScan Publications, 2003. Web

Gini Coefficient World CIA Report. Digital image. Wikipedia. N.p., 12 July 2014. Web. 17 Mar. 2016.